Thursday, January 31, 2019

Biography of Abraham Lincoln Essay -- American Presidents History Essa

Biography of Abraham Lincoln Abraham Lincoln was born Sunday, February 12, 1809, in a log cabin near Hodgenville, Kentucky. His parents names were doubting Thomas and Nancy Hanks Lincoln. They named him after his grand induce. Abrahams grandfather had been killed by Indians long before Abraham had been born. Both of his parents were born in Virginia. Abraham had an older sister and a younger brother. His younger brother was named Thomas but he died in infancy. Abrahams sisters name was Sarah. Abrahams father was a hard worker, he was a carpenter and a farmer. Abrahams parents were members of a Baptist congregation which had separated from another church due to encounter to slavery. Abraham was seven when his parents decided to move to Indiana. One of the reasons they wanted to move on that point was because of slavery. Abraham had attended school for a little while in Kentucky and did so again in Indiana. In 1818, Abrahams mother died from milk sickness. It was a sickness that you got from drinking the milk from cows which had eaten poisonous white snakeroot. He took her death hard. His father remarried in a year. Abraham liked his new meter mother. She brought along three of her own children to the household. Her name was Sarah Bush Johnston Lincoln. As Abraham grew up he realized that he preferred learning things than to be working in the fields. This caused a problem between Abraham and his father because his father was the have it off opposite. Abraham would borrow ...

Tuesday, January 29, 2019

Problems In Nigeria Essay

INTRODUCTIONThat Africa was a heathenish wasteland, until the europiumans sowed the seeds of polish on her ethnical barren shores amounts to no last in this geographical entity inhabited by throng until the Europeans brought them the elbow room of life. It is invite to want to be subjective rather than being objective in discussing this topic, but bearing in mind that the Europeans be as lucid as the Afri keisters, one can non but try to detach self from each sentiment in order to appraise and come out with existent arguments with regards to the subject matter.Africa is of the uncorrupteds of the world where Homo sapiens inhabit. It has been a stage upon which the childs play of homo phylogeny and pagan differentiation has been acted since the beginning of biography. Yet, no uncorrupted has suffered mistreatment misunderstanding misrepresentation misinterpretation and learn been misreported either in packs conversation or on the mass media. The African continent has been described as synonymous to famine, drought, barbarism, large numbers without horticulture until the Europeans in their magnanimity brought acculturation to them. These amongst others are the opinions of m whatever Eurocentric thinkers and ideologists. Yet, the fact remains, that the African like the European have eyes, hands, organs, affections and passions laughs when tickled angry when provoked searches for food and security reasons and judges.Like the Europeans can be murderous, hypocritical, rude, polite, selfish and loving so is an African dependent. In whatsoever ways, the African as well as the Europeans are subject to the identical laws of nature. It stirs equivocation in attempting to place superiority of one over the other. Thus, this elaborate shall heretofore, try to clarify the conceptual terms in the topic of turn over as well as provide answers to the pertinent questions there in What is elaboration? What is Civilization? Had Africa any culture or cultivation sooner her interaction with the Europeans? What are the seeds of civilization sown by the Europeans? To what extent do these seeds pay the African? From facts gathered, the work shall evaluate and draw a conclusion.THE CONCEPTS OF ending AND cultivationIn his work, African glossiness and Civilization, S. A. Ajayi presents culture as the conventional pattern of behaviour among a people that embraces e real aspect of a mans life and experiences. He refers to culture as a perceived way of life or the marrow of all humankind efforts and achievements in bid to struggle to survive the prevalent opposing forces of nature. Culture comprises all nigh mans ideas, behaviours and products. It finds expression in a peoples language, philosophies, institutions, arts, architecture amongst others. In fact, date everything created by immortal is nature, everything made by man is culture. However, umteen an(prenominal) a nonher(prenominal) people from metamorphoseing bac kgrounds have faceed culture differently. In the Western world, culture is limited to ideas, values, and attitudes. While Africans view it as the preserved traditions or ways of life of the forbearers and ancestors. This therefore is liable for the reason why people tend to equate any(prenominal) aspects of culture of a people such as traditionalistic dances and music, arts objects, traditional institutions, rites of passage such as marriage, birth, initiation, burial and the likes to mean the totality of culture.technically speaking, Edward Burnett Tylor employs culture and civilization as complement of each other. According to him, Culture and civilization, taken in its wide ethnographic sense, is the complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, arts, morals, law, custom, and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of lodge. Having observed the various definitions of culture, the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESC O) in 2002, defined culture as a set of distinctive livelinessual, somatic, intellect and emotional features of a society or a social group, encompassing, in addition to art and literature, ways of living together, value systems, traditions and beliefs. And culture vary from one people to another, as such it is relative across peoples and places.Therefore, it would be inappropriate to use the culture of one people as a standard to judging another. A peoples culture develops, and this development makes up the peoples civilization and history. Civilization is an on-going process as man continues in his bid to conquer and control his immediate environment for aesthetic, cultural, religious, social, economic, and political advancement. In a nutshell, civilization refers to the social advancement that occurs in a given society be it in terms of scientific advancement, progressive changes in folkways, education, leisure, family life, customs, beliefs, and more.CULTURAL VIEW OF A FRICA BEFORE European CIVILIZATIONJ. E. Casely-Hayford, (1922), an African (Gold Coast) Nationalist give tongue to of Africa that Before even the British came into traffic with our people, we were a developed (cultured) people, having our own institutions, having our own ideas of government Casely means to verbalise that Africans did not need to encounter the Europeans before developing their culture. To say a people that lived for several millennia as enter in books of history had not the way of life amounts to suspicion. Africa is occupied by many distinct human populations of a spacious complexity of cultures. They and their history, culture and civilization are inseparable. This is because their history is the record of what they did, thought and said and their culture and civilization are the totality of ideas, concepts and values that characterized their societies. The indigenous peoples of Africa are culturally diverse as unembellished in the variations in the elements o f culture across Africa.However, there are some common elements in the core African values. Like all societies experience, Africa is no different that the level of civilization across the continent differs. Twenty vanadium (25) centuries ago Egypt was capable of producing wealth in abundance because of mastery of many scientific natural laws and intervention of technology to irrigate, grow, food, and extract minerals from the subsoil while other parts of Africa employed bows, wooden clubs in their exploration. The reason why civilization was uneven amongst peoples when left on their own can partially be dependent upon the environment in which they evolved, and the superstructure of the human society. This implies that as creation battled the material environment, they created forms of social relations, forms of government, patterns of behaviour and systems of belief which together constituted the superstructure which was never exactly the same in any two societies.However, there e xisted interaction between the elements of the superstructure. For instance, the political and religious patterns affected each other and were a great deal entwined. Whenever we try to discuss pre-European African past, many concern themselves to knowing about the existence of African civilizations. This flows from an attempt to make comparisons with European civilization. This however is not the context in which to evaluate the so-called civilization of Europe.The activities of the European capitalists from the period of slavery through colonialism, fascism and genocidal wars in Asia and Africa instigate suspicion to append to the use of the word civilization. Western racism which became more articulate in the 19th and early(a) 20th centuries came to promote the prior unacquainted(predicate) predisposition in which the peoples of the Western world saw civilization as their exclusive feat and equated to it entirely mean the Western culture. To them any way of life other tha n theirs amounted to uncivilized or at best semi-civilized life.EUROPEAN CIVILIZATION IN AFRICA AN ABSTRACT OF ITS CULTURAL SEEDSThe 19th century witnessed al roughly colonization of Africa by various European powers. It was apparently to bring depth to the dark continent. Over a century has passed by it seems to Africans that colonialism amounts to material exploitation, cultural expropriation and anthropological insolvency. It is obvious directly that Africans have benefited indeed from the cultural seeds of European civilization for they speak their languages, wear their clothes, bear their kind of names, drive in automobiles made by them, and drink their champagnes. These benefits otherwise known as cultural seeds of European civilization have brought upon the African, gross ego aberration he is stripped of his self confidence. In fact, he has been dehumanized. Ngugi Wa Thiongo says the cumulative effect of the experience of slavery and colonialism is tantamount to a cultur al bomb. The effect of this cultural bomb is to annihilate a peoples belief in their names, in their language, in their heritage of struggle, in their unity, in their capacities and ultimately in themselves.Furthermore, to corroborate the position of Ngugi Wa, an American Journalist writes of the African experience The colonialists left behind some schools and roads, some post offices and bureaucrats. merely the cruelest legacy on the African continent was a lingering low quality complex, a confused sense of identity. After all, when people are told for a century that theyre not as clever or capable as their masters they eventually start to believe it. In the rowing of an African renowned author and poet, Chinua Achebe in his magnum opus Things Fall by (1959), Achebe says the white man has indeed put a knife on the things that held Africans together and they have fallen apart.In his contribution in the work edited by Byron William (1982), Eileen Egans Refugees The Uprooting o f People as a Cause of Hunger, Egan says much of the post-colonial history of the continent of Africa could be recorded in the calligraphy of agony traced by refugees as they crossed and re-crossed modern frontiers. The nations which sprang up at the wake of the scramble for Africa were heir to colonial errors in drawing borders. The borders carved out in faraway Berlin, cut across tribal, religious and linguistic groupings and also joined groups harbouring immemorial enmities. This is a study cause of civil wars and hostilities which have occurred in such countries as Nigeria, Angola, Mozambique, Zimbabwe, Guinea, Zaire, Uganda, Chad, Sudan and Somalia. The greater numbers of refugees in Africa come from some of these countries.EVALUATIONHaving expounded the concepts of culture and civilization and its evidence in human societies, it then becomes palpable that prejudice and perchance ignorance of what culture entails, predicated the derogatory assertion against Africa. It may al so not be far from fact that for a people to hold that Africa had no civilization until their contact with the Europeans could be as a result of their lack of knowledge of the African continent with her cultural wealth. The assertion made by early European explorers, that Africa was a jungle until her contact with Europeans can be said to be unsubstantiated. Even before the birth of Christ, the Noks in Nigeria were already form iron and producing terra-cotta. Trans-Sahara trade was already on when William the Conqueror ruled England. It is valued of note, that several historians of Africa have it that when the first Europeans reached Benin in the fifteenth century many years before Columbus set off for the Americas, they found a highly organise kingdom with a disciplined army, an elaborate watching court, and artisans whose work in ivory, bronze, wood and brass is prized throughout the world today for its craftsmanship and beauty, one that is comparable to what was then found in Europe .How then can a people without culture be organized and creative? The answer is looming in the air as evident in the quote by Walter Rodney (2005). He presents the description by the Dutch visitors to Benin, then The town seems to be very great. When you enter into it, you go into a great broad street, not paved, which seems to be seven or eight propagation broader than the Warmoes Street in Amsterdam The kings palace is a collection of buildings which occupy as much space as the town of Harlem, and which is enclosed with walls.There are numerous apartments for the Princes ministers and fine galleries, most of which are as big as those on the Exchange at Amsterdam. They are supported by wooden pillars encased with copper, where their victories are depicted, and which are carefully kept clean. The town is composed of thirty main streets, very straight and 120 feet wide apart from infinity of small intersectant streets. The houses are close to one another, arranged in good order. These people are in no way inferior to the Dutch as regards cleanliness they wash and scrub their house so well that they are fine and shining like a looking glassIn the spirit of objectivity, unless the Eurocentric minds have a different meaning yet to be conceptualized of culture and civilization though, or are able to establish the intro that these terms are exclusive reserves of the Europeans, their assertion of Africa remains a defamation.CONCLUSIONThis work has tried to conceptualize civilization and culture it did not find these concepts as exclusive reserves of a particular people or race. It therefore leaves one in a puzzle why supposed elites such as David Hume, A. P. virginton, Harry Johnson, Margaret Perham, Trevor Roper and others would view Africa as no good until her contact with Europe. Harry Johnson opines that before the arrival of Europeans, tribal Africans were barbarous people who had never advanced beyond the first tone of civilization.If these elites have knowledge of history, the experience of the Dutch visitors to Benin in the 15th century would have put right their thinking. In my opinion, if there is anything the Europeans arrival brought, it definitely could not have been cultivating a virgin African land with the seeds of European civilization. It perhaps could be the sowing of darnel in the vibrant plantation of Africa cultural heritage.Scholars are not intellectual fraudsters. For anyone to qualify to be a scholar, he must separate himself from all emotional sentiments, free himself of all prejudice, racial injustice and deal squarely and be unbiased in traffic with a subject matter. On this basis, one may begin to honor whether world acclaimed elites as David Hume, Trevor Ropers, A. P. Newton and others can be referred to as scholars. And for many academic loyalists who do not read between lines ideas presented in books or propagated through other means, here is a clarion call to follow the right path employi ng the apparatus of objectivity so as not to be caught in the celebration of falsehood.BIBLIOGRAPHYAjayi, S. Ademola. ed. (2005). African Culture and Civilization, Ibadan Atlantis Books. Byron, William ed. (1982). The Causes of World Hunger, New York Paulist Press. Ehusani, George O. (1991). An Afro-Christian Vision OZOVEHE Toward A More Humanized World, New York University Press of America. Lamb, David (1986). The Africans Encounters from the Sudan to the Cape, London The Bodley run Press. Ngugi Wa, T. O. (1986). Decolonizing the Mind, London James Curray Press. Rodney, Walter (2005). How Europe Underdeveloped Africa, Abuja Panaf Publishing, Inc.

Sunday, January 27, 2019

Au Bon Pain Case Study Essay

Business Strategy Au Bon Pain (ABP) is an upscale french Bakery chain restaurant that competes with other devalued food restaurants. They would deal to go from a Cycle of Failure to differentiating themselves from their competitors by up their guest follow by means of.Alignment Au Bon Pain wanted to differentiate themselves from other fast food chains by increasing the customer experience so that there would be much repeat customers and a consistent income stream. This meant improving relationships with customers which would increase if they had positive experiences and name recognition by staff. ABP had to decrease disturbance of staff and increase autonomy at local stores to create the experience that they wanted for their customers. They did this by creating the Partner/Manager Program, which created Partner Managers at stores who were much than autonomous in the day-to-day decision-making, and in turn, shared out in get.The chopine meant that Partner Managers now sha red in 35% of the profits, appurtenants shared in 15% of the profits, which was a significant increase in the reward/ remuneration bodily structure at the company. By changing the reward structure, PM and Assistant Managers took on more responsibility for their individual store which changed their role to involve things like ordering, staffing, and store aesthetics. During the trial of the Partner/Manager plan, the two stores that volunteered to insert both had managers from different backgrounds who were very driven, independent, and creative. ABP central management hoped that a program like the Partner/Manager Program would help them to recruit more staff that espoused these characteristics, which they viewed as vital to their success and growth.Application ABP changed the reward structure to increase productivity. This is consistent with the Expectancy Theory in which employees figure in Expectancy (the belief that effort provide lead to results, in this incase increase co mpensation), Instrumentality (the belief that a desired outcome ordain come from performance, in this case increased store profits will lead to increased personal compensation), and valence (the outcome, in this case increased compensation). The effort of the PM and Assistant Managers increased because their expectation of compensation was get off related to the profits of the store, which meant that the desired outcome of the company and employees were aligned and profits increased. The profit-sharing compensation method used by ABP is similar to the method that strong Foods uses.The difference is that ABP only involves the Partner/Manager and Assistant Manager in profit sharing while Whole Foods shares profits with all employees through their Gainsharing Program. While at ABP the Partner/Manager Program increases the dedication, productivity, and hopefully decreases turnover of those involved in profit-sharing, it does non do anything for the periodical employees who hav e a high turnover rate and are the ones that actually have the direct customer interaction at the registers, cleaning the stores, and making the food. This could lead to problems for ABP since the hourly employees are directly related to the consumer experience that the ABP is trying to improve, and this program does not address them.ExhibitRoles With the introduction of the Partner-Manager Program, Au Bon Pain looked to transform the roles of soil Manager, create a Partner Manager and Assistant Manager who shared in the profits, and increase autonomy in each store. In the hoary system, the District Managers micromanaged their stores, but in the new system they were given more stores and had to focus on the big.

Friday, January 25, 2019

Analyse the techniques Emily Bronte uses to explore the good and evil that can exist in human nature

In the gothic figment Wuthering Heights Bronte explores a range of emotions, including the fore of trade good and immorality. These emotions ar often of a blatant disperse, in which the ref can almost see it coming. However sometimes the novel takes a sudden twist and Bronte shocks the reader by the characters changing there plebeian attitude and bring out new emotions. This chip ins the novel more excite and mind blowing. Characters also convert their emotions and way of doing things by the way they progress to been brought up, a typical example of this is Heathcliff.We also see either more, or a change in emotions in the characters when loved ones or so them change, or are shockingly took away from them. We retire this is a gothic novel because of its features, although we do not seduce the traditional castle there is a mysterious house and one with hidden secrets. We have a villain, Heathcliff who is irritation driven and wilful. The support plays a part in Wutherin g Heights, with the stormy weather and the endless cold nights, this doesnt create a nice image and limns that it is semidark and evil. Through Nelly, Bronte tells us of the brutal acts of evil played on by Hindley.In this particular extract he is physic wholey and mentally tormenting his two-year-old son Hareton. We can tell Hareton is terrified of his father when Nelly registers he was oink and kicking This relates to the gothic genre of the novel as it seems as if the dun has captured him and he cannot break free. Literary techniques such as frighten pincer into fits sends shivers through your spine, and you as the reader wants Hareton to be ok and dislike Hindley. However, not all is evil in this horizontalt, we see an episode of kindness from a character, which is in fact usual torturer Heathcliff.This sudden act has Heathcliff catch curt Hareton from a quick escape, jumping everywhere the banister from his fathers tight grasp. This is a shock to the readers. I also think that Heathcliff himself is astonished by what he has done after all the years of Heathcliff torturing Hareton. By a natural impulse he ar lieed his descent this just shows that Heathcliff is not all evil, and if someone was truly in trouble, he would come and help them, even if he did despise them. Its not just the characters that display this confusion over good and evil, it also has a lot to do with the atmosphere around them.At the beginning, Lockwood is exploring the Grotesque Wuthering Heights, by number 1 look we would automatically come to the conclusion that it is an evil house, finding all of its Grotesque carvings and shameless little boys. This displays the uncared for place unfit for a normal human life. He shows the gothic features of the house by saying a swarm of screaky puppies which could relate to the hounds of hell, which makes this house scary and full of hatred. However in the veil of evilness, lays a side of the Heights witch we wouldnt think existe d.A unmortgaged liveable place, which is not visible from the first look at the house. We know this is a better side of the house by the language Bronte uses such as splendidly and immense which says that the house isnt all gothic and evil and can be a good place, this house is full of secrets. In comparison to the Heights, Thrushcross Grange is an velocity class beautiful palace. The language Bronte uses such as splendid, beautiful and Heavenly makes it seem as if the house and the hoi polloi in it are perfect and could never do anything bad.Something that is quite portentous about this house is the amount of crimson, in this time it was deemed you would have this if you where pep pill class. Below the surface of the Heaven lays a twisted evil side. In fact we find evilness in a little girl, Isabella who lives at the Grange. Heathcliff tells us that she was Shrieking as if witches where running hot needles in to her, this makes it seem as if she is in brutal pain and must lead a horrible life.We then find out that she is really just having a tantrum over a little puppy which is trembling with fright. This shows a different sort of evil, this girl is so spoilt she wouldnt know what it would be like to truly be upset. In the Grange Bronte uses this house to show that the upper class isnt always perfect and there nature can be very false. Overall I think the houses are almost reflect images. The Heights seems gothic and evil on the surface, but when explored deeply shows defense and a sign of kindness.Whereas the Grange seems to be a heavenly place, but the residents have been around luxury for so long, they have become evil, it just shows that not everything is what meets the eye. When Catherine dies we see both a good and evil side to Heathcliff. When we first hear about Catherine dying, we believe that Heathcliff is miserable and so upset to see the person he loves dying in his arms. We can tell he is truly upset when he is looking absolutely desperate . This seems as if Heathcliff is really caring for Cathy when they are locked in an embrace. We believe that Heathcliff has changed his usual reckon ways and is really upset for Catherine. Even though Heathcliff is trying to entertain Catherine we see that Nelly is very upset in this scene as she cannot say the goodbyes to Catherine she wants too, this is because Heathcliff is smothering Catherine, Nelly is describing him as a horrible possessed man, he gnashed at me and foamed like a dog. I would describe this scene as beautifully evil, because even though Heathcliff is showing such evil actions, he is still trying to care for Catherine and doesnt want her to die.This is their passionate goodbye plainly we couldnt be more wrong this passion disappears and is twisted. Heathcliff turns on Catherine and becomes evil. He make her seem as if she is worthless and deserves to die. He blames her for everything bad that has happened to him. He snaps at her I have not humbled your heart you have broken it this is nasty and bitter towards Cathy, especially since she is about to die. Cathy sobs for him to leave her alone, begging for his forgiveness. This shows lots evil in Heathcliff because he will not let her rest in peace.In conclusion, I believe the theme most prevalent in this novel is evil. Although, most of the characters are either good or evil, this is not always dominant as characters such as Heathcliff and Hindley are evil, but we can see a good side to them. On the other hand characters such as the Lintons look really good on the surface, but there evil side can show when something doesnt go their own way. There are many ups and downs in this novel, and to each one character has a different way of showing there emotions.

Thursday, January 24, 2019

Salvador Dali Last Supper

February 4, 2009 Surrealistic Meeting Salvador Dali drew the pictureThe Sacrament of the expiry Supperin 1955. This painting has quite a bit of emotion as you look and jut out how the apostles are kneeling. This image was created to show the futurism in the resurrection of Christ. Futurism rejects the tralatitious form and include art into modern technology. In this painting the well-nigh significant detail in this portrait, would be the spirt above the shelve in form of the cross. This figure is the Nazarene sprit rising out of him the wickedness before he was firing to be crucified.E rattlingone at the dodge make up ones mind this spirt floating out of him and that is why they are bowing their heads. on with this spirt rising, the large windows in the background, Dali seemed to want all the heavens see what is going on during this meal. Salvador Dalis picture is a totally different aspect than the original painting of the last supper. Dalis is set in a dovish table with bright sun that is showing happiness and the bright approaching of everyone at the table. With the mountains covered in snow the setting must be cold but the people in the picture look very warm with just their light robes on while praying.Dalis picture shows the existence rising above the table must be the spirit of Jesus leaving his body the night before he was crucified. The arms make over the people at the table show his index number, strength and believe to protect the loyal ones. The Jesus at the table is in separate clothes, symbolizing a struggle during the day. He looks at peace, analogous he is ready for his punishment the next day. Out stretched arms of his spirit path he is floating up to the heavens, so the only thing left field is just his body or crush. The other people at the table are praying for his spirit and giving thanks for the bread and wine he left them on the table.On the left arm of Jesus is a genus Columba sitting on his hand that symbolizes the pipe downness of the situation. His right hand, with the fingers that look like they are pointing to the spirit rising above shows the worldthat his spirit lead non be stopped no matter what they do with his shell he will live on. This surrealistic setting is the sign that Dali is picture Jesus as a wonderful peaceful man. He is facing his ordeal with courageousness and dignity. He looks to be telling his people not to morn and not to hate for what is about to happen. Letting everyone know to suffer faith in him and all will be well in the future.The sun shining through the clouds indicates the day is calm and warm unconstipated though the mountains have snow in them, It seems Jesus is assuring them that he will keep them all warm with his heart. There is a gravy holder on the shore and that must mean someone with wealth and power showed up for the supper, it might belong to the one person that is in the lucky robe. The setting of this background might be a rig by Dalis home ora place where he wanted to live. The gigantic wooden beams and stone dining area proves this is a strong place and built to withstand anything.The arms of Jesus spirit are going through the beams and must mean that nothing is as strong as the spirit of Jesus. This surrealistic setting is the sign that Dali is portraying Jesus as a wonderful peaceful man. He is facing his ordeal with courage and dignity. He looks to be telling his people not to morn and not to hate for what is about to happen. Letting everyone know to keep faith in him and all will be well in the future. This painting has a very peaceful and serene theme as shown by the mountains, and the calm face of Jesus.

Sunday, January 20, 2019

Fevicol

Fevicol was launched in 1959 and has a long history as a brand used exclusively by carpenters. It later moved into the prevalent use category. The campaign, developed by Ogilvy &038 Mather, was initially aired across the awkward in teaser poster ads and prints. The advertisements are created in the old tralatitious Indian cinema poster style, with hand painted graphics and lustrous colors. The ad takes on the form of a mini movie with a father dressing up his daughter as a virile character for a skit.To complete the look, he glues on a mustache with a drop of Fevicol. Unfortunately for his daughter, it stays in place for good. The mustache is with her through good times and bad, until her very last breath. A youngster with a moustache is born the moment she passes away as a nod to the concept of reincarnation. Piyush Pandey, executive chairman and CD for South Asia at Ogilvy &038 Mather was initially tasked to develop a campaign for another brand nether the Pidilite umbrella, Fevitite. Fevitite is too small a brand for a big whim like this.Take the money all over again and pull it for Fevicol, and that was the beginning of everything. Ogilvy &038 Mather has turned a brand that does not immediately sum itself to creativity into an advertising legend over the past five decades. spiel for the brand has scooped 99 awards over the past twenty years. To be honest, we didnt have a clue about the brand aspect when we started out, tail end then. Piyush happened to us, and I would say 1988-1999 was when the big leap took place, said Madhukar B Parekh, managing music director of Pidilite Industries.

Saturday, January 19, 2019

Improve Your Writing Essay

Use formal language unresisting voice and participles where possible 1.Beca character they do not want to trouble their p atomic number 18nts whatsoever teenagers canvass to solve their problems themselves. Not wanting to trouble their parents some teenagers try to solve their problems themselves. 2. f we live close to our parents it can mean having slight privacy. Living close to our parents it can mean having less privacy.3. If we take everything into thoughtfulness effective strategy is required to face the issue. Taking everything into consideration4.If you ca-ca as an employee in an established company, it has several positive features. Working as an employee in an established company, has several positive features.  5.If we provide prisoners with basic fostering courses in the use of tools or computers it will be more in all likelihood that prisoners will determine employment after their release. resistless voice If prisoners are provided with basic training cours es in the use of tools or computers it will be more likely that prisoners will find employment after their release. participle If provided with basic training prisoners will be more likely to find employment after their release.6. If we equip people with computer skills, they will be able to have gravel to a vast amount of information. Passive voice If people are supply with computer skills , they will be able to have access to a vast amount of information. Pariciple If equipped with computer skills , people will be able to have access to a vast amount of information.7. If it is properly managed such a chopineme is bound to bring good results. If properly managed such a program..8. I suppose that if we have ones freedom interpreted away is in itself, a serious enough punishment. I believe that having ones freedom taken away is in itself, a serious enough punishment.9. When we read we use our imaginationWhen reading we use our imagination10. There are considerable differences b etween the overage and the novel when they purchase electronic equipment. There are considerable differences between the old and the young when purchasing electronic equipment.11.While we need government supporting to accost with the environmental problems, public awareness is also vital. While needing government support to deal with the environmental problems, public awareness is also vital.

Thursday, January 17, 2019

One Ingredient To Make Bread

wipe out you ever just had a craving for some warm, amazing, homemade banana tree bread? Well, I have a simple but mouthwatering, perceptivity bud tickling recipe to share. This banana bread recipe is gravid to bake for a tasty treat or a family puddle-in concert. alone you have to do is leveraging all the right ingredients, mix the conform amounts of ingredients unneurotic, bake in the oven and enjoy The first thing you give pauperisation to do when making banana bread is to go to the inclose to purchase all the ingredients. You back find everything you will pick out to have this fantastic banana bread at your local grocery store.During your trip to the store you will have to secure sugar, flour, salt, baking soda, white vinegar, vegetable oil, draw, eggs, grooming spray such as Pam, nuts if youd like, and of course bananas. When purchase bananas the riper the better, I would actually recommend using bananas that are starting to rung brown because they are sweete r than when they first ripen. You will also need 2 large mixing stadiums and a loaf pan, if you do not have these at home you will need to purchase them. after getting all these items you are ready to head home and make your yummy, homemade banana breadOnce you arrive home and plow all your ingredients out you will need to preheat your oven to 350 degrees farenhigt. While the oven is preheating you will need to administer out your first large mixing bowl and mix together 1 cup of sugar and ? of a cup of vegetable oil. In the second mixing bowl mash the bananas with a fork and mix in 2 eggs and 3 tablespoons of solve milk. To make sour milk you will need to mix together 1 part white vinegar with 1 part milk in a small dish, and then measure out the 3 tablespoons needed.Add the banana mixture to the sugar and oil and mix together thoroughly. When the ingredients are thoroughly mixed together you will then need to add in 2 cups of flour, ? teaspoon of salt, ? teaspoon of baking so da, and one-half a cup of chopped nuts and mix together. The best style to do the mixing is for you to use a hand mixer, but you can also use a large cooking spoon to get the job done. Finally when your bastinado is complete you can pour your perfect creation into a loaf pan that has been thoroughly greased and floured to go on the read from sticking, and place the loaf into the oven. Your banana bread will need to bake for about 50 to 60 proceedings before it will be fully cooked and ready to eat. At about 50 minutes you can check to see if the bread is cooked all the way through, to do this you will need to stick a toothpick into the middle of the loaf and dedicate it out. If the toothpick comes out clean the bread is finished, if there are little pieces of batter stuck to the toothpick it will need to cook for a few more minutes. usurpt worry, just put it back in the oven and it will be perfect shortly. When the toothpick comes out of the banana bread clean you can take the bread out of the oven and let it cool. Banana bread is best served warm, overthrow into single slices about ? an inch wide, with a bit of butter lot on top. Making amazing banana bread has never been simpler. in all you have to do to have amazing, homemade banana bread is buy the ingredients, mix the ingredients together, bake the banana bread, and enjoy. Will you dare to try this simple, only amazing banana bread recipe?

Wednesday, January 16, 2019

Educational Research Essay

The enquiry study explores the model of technological developments to student motivation and positive learning outcomes. Educational institutions grant started to incorporate the practice of technology as an instructional tool to comfort teaching and learning. One of the most recent profits to instructional tools used for schoolroom instruction is the involution of industrious technology. These technologies include the use of SMS or pithy Message Service, e-mail, online forums and discussion boards.The purpose of the research is to probe deeper on the set up of these technologies to motivational learning, pressure in spite of appearance the learning environment, and the outcomes of performance. The result of the study turn up that the use of internet and quick communications lessens the pressure that students feel within the learning environment. Therefore, motivating the students to learn and feel comfortable during classroom instruction. Moreover, mobile communications opens up other alternatives for students to communicate with their teachers without any hesitations at all.Although the research acknowledged the benefits of employing mobile communication combined with internet tools, it still suggests that nurture studies be conducted on the topic. Critical Evaluation The research study is all the same again superstar of the many proofs on how technology is becoming an inherent part of education and is influential in producing positive learning outcomes. With the addition of mobile communication still it remains to be a motivational factor for students to learn and reflect that they actually have been learning by coming up with high grades during evaluation and assessment.This means that with the employment of mobile communications, students are able to produce desirable learning outcomes. Perhaps one of the things that make technology a motivational tool is because of its widespread use in almost every aspect of life. People, especially the y ounger generation, go steady technology as a trend. Incorporating the technologies that students are familiar of makes it a almighty instructional tool to arouse the interest of the learners.Learning is non limited to the confines of the educational institution because mobile communication allows learning to precede beyond the four walls of the classroom. Moreover, communication is best facilitated, especially with students who are not good oral communicators, through online communication. These observations allow educational institutions to consider the employment of mobile technology to their curriculum and their instructional tools, perhaps, also considering the emergence of globalization.

Scenario of the Internal Community:

A leadership marked by two personal integrity and value-driven vision, it is needless to argue, belongs to one of the most fundamental aspects of a truly stiff organization. And as the radical principal of a K-6 unproblematic prepare, whose composition consists in 450 students, 24 teachers, 15 office personnel and 1 custodian, I would do my best to build a legacy of sanitary leadership, vision and integrity. To my view, the ch every last(predicate)enges which the indoctrinate currently faces all take cue from effective leadership, or its unfortunate wishing thereof.If I may correctly surmise, teachers revive to power cliques provided when circumstances make room for it i. e. , when they feel that they keep fill up the power vacuum stemming from a systems the lack of able headship. Just the same, an educational institution begins to suffer from unfriendly atmosphere when a sensible lack of checks and balances within the system is tolerated. substitute is therefore a key benchmark at the onset of my speculation of duties.But out front making any administrative decision, I shall number 1 circumscribe the nature and scope of the problems at hand, by paying closely attention to the concerns of parents, teachers and other members of the community. Come August 1, I shall waste no time in gathering as much pertinent info as possible to figure what is wrong. After briefly introducing myself to the teachers and community, I shall lead up a campus-wide survey that would enable all stakeholders to vent their take on the current school system.The results shall become objects of inquiry during the brainstorming and deliberation of the schools working vision an activity which shall be participated in by the entire schools module, and shall be held a week before the school year formally commences. During the meeting, I shall be employing a non-directive or democratic approach to the affairs of the deliberation periods. I would empower my staff to brainsto rm and deliberate among themselves under my guidance the practices that need serious alteration, if only we undersurface work for the greater good of the struggling school community.In this approach, I am borrowing the idea propounded by Jonathan Rix and Kathy Simmons effective education institutions, they contend, needs to alter prevalent cultures so as to realign its vision towards maximal learning (2004, p. 67). By August 25, my mission is to communicate the new vision of the institution collectively discerned, as they were, by the entire school administration and staff to the parents and custodians concerned and, surely, to the students.On top of such vision, I would also propose the idea of frequent classroom visitations, as wellhead as thorough reviews of all extant instructional objects and learning materials. And since I shape inclusivity and involvement as necessary factors for effective learning communities, I shall propose to set convenient but non-compromise-able dates for regular updating, participated in by administrators, parents, students, as well as by some representatives from community organizations.Furthermore, I shall communicate to them the telling importance of mid-year evaluations, by way of school surveys, so as to rectify the seeming lack of checks and balances which the school once suffered from. The peace of mind of the year shall be dedicated to a relentless effort in bringing about concrete fruition to the goals of the institution which has been set for the year. Goal-redefinition, if necessitated, hobo be accommodated during the mid-year. Critical to this continuing effort is my goal to meet all teachers and staff individually during the year.Personally, I would like to work on concepts that find their concrete correlation with reality. The effort is, obviously, onerous on my part. But I am a firm believe that no great things can be achieved overnight. If I want my educational organization to succeed, I generate to und ergo the painstaking process of brainstorming and implementing goals, as well as leveling honest reviews in respect its relative success, or lack of it. Running a school entails the continued appreciation of the systems that work, a courage to change what does not work, and the wisdom to know the difference between them.

Tuesday, January 15, 2019

Human: Ethics and Corporate Governance Essay

craft sector moral philosophy at Chancellor College has as its main objective crack appropriate theoretical and practical formation in morals as applied to the context of corporal governing. This objective is motivated by our use up at preparing our students for the various challenges they entrust encounter in their various furrowes which they will undertake. We believe as a university that their success in business is blow up dependant on their knowledge and practical readiness in confronting moral issues which will be part and parcel of their everyday experience at work place.Expectations It is expected that at the end of our course, students will be competent of demonstrating their understanding of the following the basic ideas in the context of ethics incarnate system in general and the application of ethical insights in corporate governance. The university expects nurture that the students will develop the personal ability to know how they croupe apply the var ious insights learned in their own activities after their graduation. electropositive Texts1 1. Shaw, WH (2005) business sector Ethics Thomson Wadsworth, Bangalore. India 2.Crane A and Matten D (2004) Business Ethics. Oxford University Press. natural York. USA 3. Velasquez MG (2004) Business Ethics (Concepts and Cases). 5th Edition. Prentice Hall. unsanded Delhi. India. Other texts will be given together with the rest of the module. 1 NB This is conditioned by what we gravel in the library. 3 Business Ethics Revision 0. General Introduction Welcome back to my lectures on Business Ethics after a long holiday of the so called Academic Freedom. I am aware of the fact that most of you have gone backwards intellectually, but we will try to catch up.I will commerce by making you aware of the relevance of our lectures or this field of study. Increasing current research in the context of business studies has shown a great interest in understanding and developing further the issue of co rporate governance, for instance, ODonavans A Board of Corporative government, Aras G & Crowther D. work on Culture and merged Governance 2008 Coley J. What is Corporate Governance 2005 Monks R. A. G & Monow Nells work Corporate Governance 2008 and many others.This big interest in corporate governance suggests the centrality of understanding corporations and the incumbent mechanisms in doing any business. Indeed for our business to turn necessitates a thorough knowledge of the various mechanisms in this context. Aware of the centrality of corporate governance, this course therefore suggests studying an aspect of this theme that is, the understanding of ethics inside this context. This study falls under the general study of ethics in the context of business studies, normally known as business ethics. The course has five parts as indicated in the course abstraction above.The first part deals with a theoretical presentation of ethics. This is directed at introducing the stude nt to the ethical theories and principles which are then reflected in the context of corporate governance. The second part develops a theoretical understanding of what business is, by dint of the study of the general aspects of corporate governance. This is intended at acting as a background where insights from ethics are discussed. The third part discusses ethics inside the corporations. It focuses more on how corporations utilize ethics in their systems as a fundamental component.

Monday, January 14, 2019

Problems and Aspirations of Youth Essay

AbstractViolent crimes such as murder, fortify robbery, catch and terrorism atomic subroutine 18 the most inhumane crimes that pass to plague Nigeria. Lately, kidnappings for exchange and terrorism urinate taken the centre st come on leading to bloodbath and economic set -backs. The ca characters atomic number 18 non farfetched as studies cast off associated rising youth un barter to the increase in violent crimes. By utilise the deprivation theory proposed by Ted Gurr, this debate has explored the proximate and ultimate causes involving the youths in violent crimes. If factors that create the emotional state of deprivation and foiling created by un meshing ar addressed, Nigerias youths will non engage in violent crimes.Keywords juvenility un piece of work poverty forcefulness crimeIntroductionCreativity and high thrust be the characteristics of young tribe in any nation and if the cipher is channelled positively, it will prominently benefit non only the econ omic successfulness of nations but also enhance the moral values of the youth. When the same postal code is utilize negatively, it will lead to social unrest and economic instability. tug depict of a country is employ to measure un utilization and Feyisetan (1991) defines as a set of populate or citizens of a country who argon free and are able to make available at any devoted point in time their efforts for gainful employment. in that locationfore unemployment is a mail where people are willing to piece of work but could not construe employment. According to the International Labour Organization people who are without work but available for and seekin g work including those who give lost phone lines and those who demand voluntarily left jobs (World Bank, 1998). On the other hand, violent crime is be as a crime in which the offender uses or threatens to use violent force upon the victim. This entails ferocity including robbery with and without arms (Wikipedia, 2010). Global unemployment remained durable at 8% amongst 2010 and 2011, according to Gallup surveys of 148 countries. Unemployment was highest in the Middle eastbound and noneth Africa (22%) and sub-Saharan Africa 17% (Marlar, 2012). However, Nigerias unemployment arrange is above the sub-regions average that change magnitude to 23.9% in 2011 compared with 21.1% in 2010 and 19.7% in 2009 ( issue Bureau of Statistics, 2012) and is project to hit 25% by the end of 2012 (USA Embassy in Nigeria, 2012).According to the National Bureau of Statistics (2009238 20102 2012), the national unemployment rates for Nigeria amongst 2000 and 2011 showed that the number of out of work souls constituted 31.1% in 2000 and it reduced to 11.9% in 2005 but again increased to 23.9% in 2011. Nigeria has a youth population of 80 million, representing 60% of the add up population with a out ripening rate of 2.6% per year and the national human ecology suggests that the youth population remains vibrant wi th an average annual fledgling to the labour force is 1.8m amid 2006 and 2011. Yet, majority of the youth has been either slothful or under - active between 2006 and 2011. The overall unemployment rose from 12.3% of Labour force to 23.9% (Awogbenle and Iwuamadi, 2010). A surge in unemployment was witnessed in 2009 payable to global/ topical anaesthetic anaesthetic economic meltdown. The World Bank estimates that 74 million people between the ages of 15 and 24 are laid-off, which accounts for 41% of all laid-off person s (UNHabitat, 2008).From 1990-2000 youth unemployment data showed that the largest group of the unemployed were secondary naturalise graduates. Also, 40% of unemployment rate were among urban youths aged 20 24 and 31% of the rate were among those aged 15-19. Two- thirdlys of the urban unemployed ranged from 15-24 long time old. Moreover, the educated unemployed tended to be young males with few dependents (Okafor, 2011). In 2011, the situation became even mor e than critical with 37.7% of Nigerians aged 15-24 and 22.4% of those between ages 25-44 were willing to work but did not get jobs. On average, youth unemployment rate in Nigeria is 46.5% in 2011 (BLG, 2012). As of 2009 when National Bureau of Statistics published unemployment rate at 19.7%, Issa Aremu the Deputy chair of the National Labour Congress said, Find out about the number of people who applied for the last recruitment by the Nigeria Immigration dish out and the Customs Service.When more than a hundred thousand people concord for just about 3000 vacancies, then you should know whether the figures are true (Ekott, 2010). Unemployment appears to be the root cause o f military force in Nigeria. look suggests that unemployed youths are disproportionately more likely to be perpetrators, as well as victims of crime and violence (Okafor, 2011). The growing gap between the rich and poor affects the society through increased violence. The self employed are in quandary as scant infrastructure makes it unaccepted for them to ply their trade (Okafor, 2011). This is exac erbated by political corruption, poverty, poor governance, change magnitude population, and lack of policy initiatives and implementation to whatever extent encouraged criminal groups to expatiate across Nigeria. This paper examines how youth unemployment contributes to violent crimes across Nigeria.Deprivation hypothesis of Ted GurrThis classical theory explains why people engage in violence (riots, rebellion, coups, criminal activities etc.). It examines the psychological causes involving frustration and aggression as the scratch line-string address of human capacity for violence. Frustration is neither necessary nor sufficient ly leads to violence but greed may drive to violence. Frustration is a more faster motivating force and prolonged frustration may cause greater probability for aggression. Relative deprivation is the discrepancy between what people speculate they deserve and what they very think they can get (Gurr, 1970).It is noteworthy that Gurr does not look to a more absolute or objective forefinger of deprivation as the source of violence. People can get used to a bad state of affairs, even one that offers so piddling access to life-sustaining resources that members of the group are starving or death of remediable diseases or exposure. However, if there is a signaliseificant d iscrepancy between what they think they deserve and what they think they will get, there is a likelihood of rebellion. Gurr posits this to be the case because there is a vox populi that their expectation cannot be met if the current statuesque is maintained. The first situation may be a desperate one, but it is the se cond that will be frustrating. So frustration produces aggression at individual, group and societal levels.This theory could be used to link rising number of unemployed youths and violent crimes in Nigeria. A country that produce thousands of universit y graduate every year without commensurate employment opportunities may be creating a fertile g beat for a feeling of frustration among these unemployed graduates. Naturally, there is a feeling of joy and great expectations when a student graduates from a university- these expectations gradually fades away and is replaced by feeling of frustration after more or less years of joblessness caused by slight hazard the society offers the young graduate. As frustration prolongs and the feeling of deprivation of what that is judge increases, there is a greater probability that the individual or people can resort to illegitimate activities in ramble to actualise their expectations in the society.The rise in violent crimes (robbery, kidnapping, thuggery, terrorism) committed by youths is a sign of gap in the society. The society already has expectations for individuals and established nub of achieving them. When the inwardness are limited as the youth unemployme nt is 46.5% in 2011, people are forced to achieve the goals through illegal means to fulfil societal expectations. Kidnappings are on the increase across Nigeria and the unemployed youths view the line of work lucrative.They are available for recruitment by p oliticians. In the northern part, they are recruited both by politicians and religious groups to be used in political, religious and terrorism acts. In the SW Nigeria, they find easy employment in petty criminal activities. The culture must at least accept , if not approve, violent action as a means to an end. This could be the reason why suicide bombing is exclusive to the Union part of the country as violence is encouraged by some Islamic sects. Political violence is also likely if the current leadershi p and or the socio-economic and political system are seen as illegitimate. consumes of young Unemployment in NigeriaThe level of unemployment is highly dependent on the overall status of the delivery (Awogbenle and Iwuamadi, 2010). Despite it s riches from o il economy, employment in Nigeria is actually falling. The years of corruption, civil war, military rule, and mismanagement watch hindered economic growth. Nigeria is invest with diverse and infinite resources, both human and material but years of neglige nce and adverse policies have led to the under-utilization of these resources. These resources have not been efficaciously utilized in order to yield maximum economic benefits. These are primary causes of unemployment however s cholars have identified other causes of unemployment as well ( Adebayo, 1999 Alanana, 2003 Echebiri, 2005 Ayinde, 2008 Morphy, 2008 Awogbenle and Iwuamadi, 2010 and Anyadike et al, 2012) .The first is population growth (140,431,790 as per 2006 census) and is projected to be over 1 80 million by 2020 if the annual growth rate of 3.2% continues (National people thrill and ICF Macro, 2009). While the population increases, the number of industries growth is dwindling and if nothing serious i s done, both population and unemployme nt will continue to rise. The second is outdated school curricula and lack of employable achievements Some scholars have argued that as far as the formal sector is bear oned, the average Nigerian graduate is not employable therefore, does not possess the skill s needed by the employers (Anyadike et al, 2012). This is due to the curricula of most Nigerian schools that do not include entrepreneur skill acquisition to benefit job seekers.The third is adoption of untimely economic policy measures that contributed to the demise of small cuticle and cottage industries operated in both formal and informal sectors. Following the accounting entry of Structural Adjustment Program in September 1986 that ushered in liberalization, deregulation and devaluation program of the domes tic currency, many of the teething domestic firms collapsed that resulted in serious job losses (Bello, 2003). The fourth is over emphasis on university certificates and negle ct of skill acquisition trainings that contributes to youth unemployment. According to Manning and Junankar (1998), the total number of graduates produced in Nigeria was 73,339 in 1986/1987 that rose to 131,016 in 1996/1997. Over 97 universities occur in Nigeria with a demand for higher knowledge while there is problem of unemployment. The public is that the economy does not have the capacity to absorb all unemployed graduates because over 800 industries and 37 factories were closed down in 2009 alone (Anyadike et al, 2012).Nigerias Unemployment and crimesSecurity is a contextual issue which no state in the international system consigns to the periphery it is a core-value that makes the state relevant in the international system (Ndifon, et al. 2012). Death rate attributable to violence in Africa is estimated at 60.9 per 100,000 p eople more than twice the global rate (WHO 2004a). Crime and violence have been increasing in many parts of sub-Saharan Africa among unemployed young p eople. The causes are not farfetched as studies have associated rising youth unemployment to increase of violent crime in Nigeria. The accelerating level of prostitution, armed robbery, rape, terrorism and all facets of violence can be for the most part attributed to the incidence of unemployment. appendage has not been in line with the aspirations of the people and has not been driven by higher productivity. The public perception is that there has been little job creation. Many young people who fail to gain employment have become a burden to the employed that bear the function of meeting the needs of millions of educated but increasing frustrated group, a wasting generation.The problem of violent crimes in Nigeria has been exacerbated by the high rate of unemployment and economic hardship which has pushed many jobless youths some of whom are graduates into sundry(a) deadly crimes (Edward, 2011). A 2009 World Bank report on date and Growth, warned that, The share of young peopl e between the ages of 15 and 24 outside the labour force is growing, despite the countrys strong growth performance over the years. Mass sacking in the Central Bank of Nigeria affected 7,500 banking jobs (Allafrica, 2010). The UN-Habitat study on crimes and violence distressed that socio -economic inequality and the lack of opportunities for social advancement and employment are some of th e root causes of crime and violence. Children and youth from disadvantaged families are vulnerable to fall prey to criminal networks. Of the estimated 1 billion people living in slums, over half are under the age of 25, and 40% are estimated to be under the age of 19.They are the primary victims of social exclusion through unemployment, lack of access to health and education (UN -Habitat, 2008). Furthermore, an empirical survey of Children and Youth in Organized Armed delirium in Nigeria, reported that disenchantment and frustration of young people due to mass poverty and unemployment, has incre ased the number of aggrieved youths and resulted in the emergence of force field boys and Almajiris who target the very society that alienated them (Ibrahim, 2006). The survey concluded that armed militant groups in Nigeria namely Bakassi Boys, O odua Peoples Congress (OPC) and Egbesu Boys were made up of youths within 16 17 years (40%), 18 19 years (10%), 20 21 years (20%), and 20 23 years (20%). nigh 60% of them were unemployed (Awogbenle and Iwuamadi, 2010).Bennel (2000) argued that urban society is becoming increasingly criminalized, oddly with the proliferation of youth gangs. Neither homes, nor markets are safe in Nigeria because of frequent o ccurrence of armed robbery incidents. Unemployment problem, which now seems beyond remedy, has produced army of idle work force and some of them have decided to punish the society that fails to provide them with means of livelihood and dignity by robbing its members of their property at gunpoint (Ideyi, 2005). The natural law ca nnot perform effectively because they are overstretched by the amount of cases that awaits them daily, and is worsened by outdated instruments they use that are no match to the modern forward-looking weapons used by the criminals. The Research Director of the Nigerian Economic eyeshade Group (NESG), Dr Sope Wiliams Elegbe revealed thatThe increasing poverty in Nigeria is accompanied by increasing unemployment. Unemployment is higher in the nort h than in the south. Mix this situation with perfect Islam, which promises a better life for martyrs, and you can understand the growing violence in the north. Government statistics show that the northern states have the highest proportion of unskilled persons. If you link a lack of education and attendant lack of opportunities to a high male youth population, you can imagine that some areas are actually a breeding ground for terrorism (Oxford Research Group, 2012). The inspector General of Police, Muhammed Abubakar, has called on the th ree tiers of government to tackle unemployment in order to reduce crime rate in the country. He evince concern at the rate youths were resorting to crime as an alternative means of pick due to unemploymentWe have a lot of graduates and even those who have not attended any school who have nothing to do. It becomes worrisome, when you go round this country and you see the faces of unemployed persons. You begin to wonder that we just have to do what we have to do at the level of federal, state and local governments to begin to plan and put policies in place for the employment of these persons. (Cruise news, 2012) resultNo nation can achieve growth in an melody of violent crimes. The role of Nigerias government must include the grooming of policies and laws that could help improve the economic and social wellbeing of its citizens and deter criminality. There is a need to increase jobs through small enterprises and poverty easing schemes. Economic gr owth in Nigeria is not the only solution to curb unemployment as the official statistics illustrate that previous unemployment did not decline economic growth. other(a) solutions such as the provision of right skills to youth should be condition an importance. The study concludes that feeling of deprivation produce frustration and could be expressed through aggression. Therefore if factors that are responsible for youth unemployment in Nigeria are addressed, violent crimes will be reduced.ReferencesAdebayo A (1999). Youth Unemployment and National board of directors of Employment Self Employment Programmes. Niger. J. Econ. And Soc. Stud. 41(1) 81-102. Alanana OO (2003). Youth Unemployment in Nigeria Some Implications for the trinity Millennium. Global J. Soc. Sci. 2(1)21-26.Anyadike Nkechi, Emeh Ikechukwu EJ and Ukah Finian Okechukwu (2012). Entrepreneurship development and employment generation in Nigeria Problems and prospects. Journal of didactics and General Studies Vol. 1(4) pp. 088-102.Awogbenle, A.C. &am p Iwuamadi, K.C. (2010). Youth Unemployment Entrepreneurship Development Programme as an intervention Mechanism. African Journal of Business Management, 4(6), 831-835.Ayinde OE(2008). Empirical Analysis of Agricultural Growth and Unemploymentin Nigeria. Afr. J. Agric. Res. 3(7)465-468.Cruise news, (2012). To fight crime in Nigeria, we must first fight Unemployment. Available on http//www.cruisenigeria.comBello, T. (2003). Attacking Unemployment Hurdles in the flimsy Economies of the Sub Saharan Africa The Experience of Nigeria. A Paper Presented at the economic science for the Future Conference On the Occasion of the Celebration of 100 historic period of Cambridge Economics Cambridge, United KingdomBennel, P, (2000). Improving Youth Livelihood in SS.A Report to the International Development Center.BGL, (2012). Economic Note The Nigerias paradox of Growth amidst High Poverty Incidence. Retrieved from www.bglgroupng.comEchebiri, R.N. (2005). Characteristics and Determinants of Urban Youth Unemployment in Umuahia, Nigeria Implications for country-style Development and Alternative Labor Market Variables. A Paper presented at the ISSER/Cornell/World Bank conference on Shared Growth in Africa held in Accra, Ghana, July 21-22.Edward Uzoma Ezedike, (2011). Violent Crimes, Economic Development and the Morality of Capital penalization in Nigeria A Retentionist Perspective. Retrieved from www.transcampus.org/journalsEkott, I. (2010). Statistics Bureau puts Nigeria unemployment rate at 19.7 percent . contiguous News. Retrieved from http//234next.com/csp/cms/sites/Next/Home/index.csp Feyisetan BJ (1991). Population growth and the labour force, a study of relationships. Paper presented at a seminar on population and development, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife. Nigeria June 25-28.Ideyi, N. (2005). The Root Cause of Violence in Nigeria The Niger Delta Crisis, a Reference PointManning, C. & Junankar, P.N. (1998). choosey Youth or Unwanted Youth A Survey of Unemployment. publicize of Indonesian Economic Studies, 34(1), 55-93. Marlar Jenny, (2012). Global Unemployment at 8% in 2011. Retrieved from http//www.google.com/gwt/x?hl=en&u=http//www.gallup.com/poll/153884/globalune mployment2011.aspx&guest=msucweb&q=Unemployment+rate+in+Africa+and+sub+S aharan+Africa&sa=X&ei=GHEOUPHUDmw2wW_j4HYCA&ved=0CCQQFjAJMorphy R. (2008). Nigeria Youth Unemployment, Poverty a Time attack for Country. Leadership, Wednesday, 27 AugustNational Bureau of Statistics. (2009). Social Statistics in Nigeria. capital of Nigeria The NBS Publication. Retrieved from www.nigerianstat.gov.ngNational Bureau of Statistics. (2010). Statistical News Labor Force Statistics No. 476. Abuja The NBS Publication. Retrieved from www.nigerianstat.gov.ngNational Bureau of Statistics, (2012). Labour Force Statistics. Retrieved from www.nigerianstat.gov.ngNational Population Commission and ICF Macro. (2009). Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey 2008. Abuja, Nigeri a NationalNdifon, C.O, Apori, K.A and Ndifon, R.A. (2012). Human Traffickin g in Nigeria A Metaphor for Human Rights, Crime and Security Violations. American Journal of Social Issues & Humanities (ISSN 2276 6928) Vol.2(3) pp. 84-99. Available on http//www.ajsih.org Okafor, E.E. (2011). Youth Unemployment and Implications for Stability of Democracy In Nigeria. Journal of Sustainable Development in Africa. Vol. 13, No.1, 2011 ISSN 15205509320 A j a e g b uAJSIH Vol.2 No.5. (September 2012) 315-321American Journal of Social Issues & Humanities Vol.2 No.5. (September 2012)Oxford Research Group, (2012). Nigeria The generic wine Context of the Boko Haram Violence. MonthlyGlobalSecurityBriefing.Retrievedfromwww.oxfordresearchgroup.org.uk/sites/default/files/AprEn12.pdf Population Commission and ICF Macro, (2010). Nigeria Unemployment Paradox of Growth. Retrieved from http//allafrica.com/nigeria/Ted Gurr . Why Men Rebel. Princeton, NJ Princeton University Press. 1970. UN-Habitat, (2008). Crime and violence versus employment opportunities in cities and towns. 2nd African Minister ial Conference on house and Urban Development. Abuja, Nigeria. Retrieved from www.unhabitat.orgUnited States Embassy in Nigeria, (2012). Nigerian Fact Sheet. Retrieved from http//nigeria.usembassy.govWHO (World Health Organization), 2004a. African Leaders Call for Increased Efforts to Prevent Violence. Press release, July 26. Regional component for Africa, Brazzaville. Retrieved from www.afro.who.int/note_press/2003/pr20030726.html Wikipedia,

Wednesday, January 9, 2019

Wealthy and Lower Socioeconomic Communities Differences

on that point exists an consummation gap among wealthy and cut socio economic communities. Students who come from shal first bases within get off socioeconomic communities do not frequently receive the same education or services from wealthier districts. New jersey has responded to this inequitable situation with the Abbot supporting process. recently two local communities, Long weapon and Neptune, have been threatened with the loss of their Abbott locating as a result of supererogatory mandates from the federal No Child left(p) Behind Act, umteen such teachs be organism threatened with the loss of their funding if they fail to meet minimum faculty member exercise standards.To determine the impact of this dominance loss, this paper give provide insights into local concerns in Long setoff to disclose how this loss would need the academic achievement gap. This discussion will be followed by a report on two areas where it is believed equity will be helpless to the district. In their Abbott vs. Burke decision, the New tee shirt Supreme Court mandated additional assistance for the posits 30 poorest districts, including Long Branch and Neptune (Quinn, 2003). fit in to an Asbury Park Press survey of enrollment data for Monm come forthh County run aground that minorities comprise the majority of the school population in Asbury Park, reddish Bank, Neptune, Freehold, Long Branch and Lakewood of these, the survey institute that only Red Banks poverty consider does not exceed the states rate (Quinn, 2003). Furthermore, full 20 percent of the Hispanic students in Monm forbiddenh County attend the Long Branch school system (Quinn, 2003).If the additional funding forecastd by the Abbott decision is halted or reduced, all of the low-income communities will undoubtedly experience further declines in the academic performance levels that are already precipitously low in many cases, with the thrust of this reduction in funding creating two fund amental problems 1) adversely affect literary rates and 2) further incense the segregation of low-income and minority citizens into pockets of poverty.As to the first-year issue, Strickland and Alvermann (2004) reviewed the issues concerning the achievement gap in the U. S. and found that literacy demands of the middle grades are exacerbated when the students come from low income and minority homes in particular, these issues assumed particular levels when the students are members of low-income and minority families. These students are already likely to attend schools characterized by last mobility rates, inadequate resources and facilities, and large numbers of puppylike students with challenging learning needs (Strickland & axerophthol Alvermann, 2004). Comparable snubs are also unmixed in the State of New tee shirt as well.According to Lattimer and Strickland (2004), the results from the Grade eighter Proficiency Assessment (GEPA) from 2000-2002 identified unchanging d ifferences in partially nice, serious, and advanced proficient between District Factor Groups (DFGs) and carry/ethnicity. In addition, the differences in academic achievement between special needs districts such as Long Branch and non-special needs districts found similar trends to the 2002 GEPA (Lattimer & Strickland, 2004).In fact, a 35-percentage point difference existed in the total number of students scoring proficient and advanced proficient in linguistic process Arts Literacy in 2002 the authors point out that the District Factor Group is an indication of the socioeconomic status of citizens in to each one district and has been useful for the comparative describe of test results from New Jerseys statewide scrutiny programs in the past (Lattimer & Strickland, 2004).Concerning the assist issue of further segregating low-income and minority citizens into pockets of poverty, the school superintendent for Long Branch describe that although minorities tend to live i n single out communities, this was the result of a social trend rather than segregation notwithstanding these assertions, though, these postgraduate concentration of low-income minority members in their protest communities has created have and have-not districts, with the Long Branch district representing one of the hardest-hit in the state (Quinn, 2003).Clearly, if the Abbott funding is halted, parents will be go about with a dual-edged dilemma of being ineffectual to provide their children with an adequate education by virtue of substandard schools while being forced to remain in these low-income districts out of sheer necessity. The people of New Jersey in general and the citizens of these low-income regions deserve the type education that is their American birthright unfortunately, the promise has not lived up to its legacy in many of these cities, and Long Branch continues to be threatened with even more academic and social miseries if its Abbott funding is stopped.

Tuesday, January 8, 2019

Callicles Gorgias

Rebecca L. Hunt Stickiest Point 1 1. THE CLAIM The man wholl live mightily ought to allow his own likings to get as large as possible and non restrain them. Callicles, Gorgias 491e-492a. 2. CALLICLES ARGUMENT Callicles claims that one should surfeit his longing as such(prenominal) as possible. Socrates view on a b adept life requires self mastery which nitty-gritty that your appetites and emotions be controlled and you mind manifests rig. Also, Socrates ideal blessed person would not do what is chastely injure.Callicles turn overs that if you live a life a wish well(p) Socrates wants, you are hold like a corpse or a stone. Callicles believes that living pleasantly consists in this having as much as possible flow in (494b). To truly be happy, one inescapably to be constantly filling his appetite to the maximum capa urban center. This is not possible for many. The sight who cannot fulfill their appetites are apparently discomfit and their own lack of courage leads them to cheers self-control and entirelyice (492b).According to Callicles, the traffic patterns lay downd by the namby-pamby enslave the more naturally happy work force. For the ones born into power, Callicles believes that they should defiantly tone of voice dim that they let the talk of the hoi polloi and the laws that rule them stop him from filling his appetite. 3. CRITICISM Callicles is wrong to think that one should fill his appetite constantly and to the fullest. This may seem like a pleasant life solely it is defiantly not a fulfilling one.You use up more goals and ambitions that are not just centered on what you want. . One could argue that everybody does not have appetites that are severe and selfish, besides Callicles is defiantly referring to the self-indulgent ones. Callicles opening is similar to Darwins survival of the fittest. two believe that the strongest creatures will rule and engender over the weaker ones Callicles is also wrong in saying that the strong should do whatever they feel and the weak need to dispense with holding them back with rules.He believes that the weak create these rules because they are jealous and embarrassed at their own incompetence. It is not that the weak are jealous they just want order in their cities. If the strong had the ability to do whatever they feel thusly many tidy sum would suffer. Why would a city want a majority of its citizens feel inferior to just a smattering of, what I would call, bullies? This includes people born into power. still because they are rulers does not give them the powerful to not have any build of ethics or morals.They should actually do the opposite of what Callicles says and set an example for their people and lead good, self-disciplined lives. Smart people should have more of a right to rule the people, but only if they are exhausting to work for the greater good. They should not have ultimate power but I would rather a mode full of smart, morally good men rule a city then selfish men constantly trying to always fulfill their own appetites.

Sunday, January 6, 2019

Free Speech in the Digital World Under Threat?

COMMENTARY cost little Speech in the Digital human being under Threat? Kirsty Hughes We atomic exit 18 at a bite where the digital reality put up go either steering it poop engender a lacuna of genuine excess expression, ane enjoyed by ever big numbers of pack or it can snuff it a discoverled and remindered space. Like any encounter for thaw speech and fundamental decents, governments and early(a)wise major(ip) players in this subject large-minded sack companies and internet operate providers must be held to account and challenged to defend our mightilys. T e digital populace continues to open up huge opportunities for confabulation, interaction, sharing views and exchanging information crosswise and within borders. It is even rather go surface to say we atomic number 18 all our experience publishers now, we can all be citizen journalists though we are and can be. And as millions to a greater design people in the next twin of years join that digital world as the price of smart rings fall, the digital revolution is surely non over. Or is it? Are Governments Hardwired to Snoop and Censor? Kirsty Hughes (email&clxprotected om) is with the Index on Censorship, London, United Kingdom. The world power of both governments and big corporations to monitor the internet, to compile information on us all, to look on what we can and can non do or pass on the blade is a nonher attain but less welcome die of our digital world. And censorship and surveillance of digital communications is on the rise non only in countries such as Iran, chinaware and Russia, but also in India, the United Kingdom (UK) and the United States (US). temporary hookup Chinas great ? ewall and multitude of snoopers does its best to block a consentient gamut of politically-sensitive topics and human beings debates sensitive that is to Chinas dominating elites the democratic world is increasingly smell at using the technological opportuniti es out there, either to block content, or to monitor their let citizens. Earlier this year, Indian regimen came top in Googles hydrofoil report which shows government requests to Google to remove secular and how numerous Google complied with with the largest number of requests for Google to take clump posts not backed by flirt orders.The US and Brazil had the highest number of put-d feature demands backed by court orders, art object in twitters connatural transparentness report, the US was the number single country demanding information on users. Google and Twitter also go along with many but not all of the requests NovemBER 17, 2012 they beat private companies playing a critical role in determining the extent of our part with speech and our privacy. Mean sequence in the UK, a draft Communications selective information Bill currently being scrutinised in Parliament, would, if it became law, lead to monitoring and retention of a vast array of digital data across th e entire population.From tracking who our emails go to or come from, likewise our ph superstar calls, to storing the data our mobiles give up on our locations or our web hunt clubes, showing what topics we are investigating, the draft UK Bill certainly deserves its general name a snoopers charter. Iran is also aiming to develop its own intranet that would operate in a right smart detached from the wider world-wide web, and so be frequently easier to control by resign authorities. only if how can India or the UK or US stand up to Iran and pressure them not to cut their citizens off from the wider digital world, if they are not fully respecting basic rights of their own citizens online?What Is Driving the Urge to Control? independence of expression is a fundamental right and without it democracies cannot function and power cannot be held to account. So why are so many governments increasingly looking at control of our digital lives? There are both overlapping skilfuli? catio ns at the heart of this. Do we deficiency protecting from being pained? Attempts to give up censorship often call scratch off to the protection of exoteric order, or public morals, tackling hate speech, or promoting national security.But unless highly limited, such censorship rapidly intrudes on open democratic debate, serious discussion, on art and entertainment, on all our communication and interaction. In the UK, a recent bargain of cases indicate a deeply unreassuring trend towards criminalising speech individuals induct have jail sentences or community service orders for publishing sick or adult jokes online or on Twitter (or in one case for strong anti-police sentiments on a t-shirt). And while the Innocence of Muslims image was highly dysphemistic to roughly (though not all had seen it) is it really vol xlviI no 46EPW Economic &038 Political hebdomadary 18 COMMENTARY the job of governments to decide what is offensive or not? And if they do, and all governments surrounded by them censor all that is offensive on the web, thusly there go away be very little left for us all to read or debate or write. We will end up in the opposite of a digital world in a controlled and abrupt set of con? ned digital spaces. The other main justi? cation governments use for controlling the digital world is in order to justify monitoring and surveillance.We need it to tackle offensive activity and terror, the authorities say with great indispensableness the criminals are technologically leaps and bounds forrader of us. But do democracies really need to monitor and survey their entire populations just because digital technology makes it easy to do? Surely tackling crime needs a focused, targeted, intelligent approach not a population-wide sledgehammer. And if democracies do mimic the mass snooping conduct of the East German Stasi, or of todays China or Iran, then they will be undermining their own democratic systems.Free speech does not prevail where e verything is being monitored, or collected, or stored so one day it may be suss out on. And while governments need to be challenged not to censor and monitor and undermine the globose digital space we division, private companies have become an increasingly classic deduct of the equation but one less easily held to account. Facebooks users hit the one billion mark this autumn. But not only does Facebook make a lot of money out of the private and public information that the one billion share on its pages, it also sets the rules for the conversations in its space.Fair sufficient you may say, so do skunk of clubs or newspapers or societies. But squall operators do not set rules of what you can and cannot say on the phone cafes do not ask you to sign up to what you can and cannot say at the door. And as Twitter, Google and others respond to governments requests to take material down or stand up to governments (as they sometimes do) and defend what has been posted we are witnes sing a major privatisation of censorship in the digital world. Can We Defend the Digital rotary motion?So have we lost the digital revolution while it is still in its infancy? Not necessarily. Some big web companies are issuing transparency reports, as Google and Twitter do, so we can all see and judge what they as companies are doing though we cannot get that word-painting yet for any individual country. This is an important but partial step. Beyond this, some of the big companies, as well as many democratic governments, have do clear statements supporting an open, free digital space that respects human rights including the right to free expression.And the European inwardness (EU) and US are currently standing up to a push from China and Russia for top-down regulation of the internet. The next diadem where this battle will continue is the International Telecommunications Union (ITU) meeting in Dubai in archean December. Which way will India, or Brazil, or South Africa go at that summit with the US and EU or with China and Russia? We are at a moment where the digital world can go either way it can become a space of genuine free expression, one enjoyed by ever larger numbers of people, or it can become a controlled and monitored space.Like any battle for free speech and fundamental rights, governments and other major players in this case big web companies and internet service providers must be held to account and challenged to defend our rights. If democracies like India, the EU, the US or Brazil do not defend free speech in the digital world, and hold back from the come-on of censorship and surveillance almost at the click of a mouse, then we are on a dangerously lubricious slope. It is a moment to stand up and defend our digital freedoms for if we do not, who will?N EW The Adivasi Question redact By INDRA MUNSHI Depletion and destruction of forests have gnaw at the already fragile survival beginning of adivasis across the country, displacing an alarmingly large number of adivasis to make way for development projects. many have been forced to migrate to other rural areas or cities in search of work, leading to systematic alienation. This volume situates the issues concerning the adivasis in a historical context while discussing the challenges they face today.The introduction examines how the loss of unload and livelihood began under the British administration, reservation the adivasis dependent on the landlord-moneylender-trader nexus for their survival. The articles, bony from writings of almost four decades in EPW, discuss questions of community rights and ownership, management of forests, the states rehabilitation policies, and the Forest Rights mask and its implications. It presents diverse perspectives in the form of case studies specific to different regions and provides valuable analytic insights.Authors Ramachandra Guha Sanjeeva Kumar Ashok K Upadhyaya E Selvarajan Nitya Rao B B Mohanty Brian Lobo Pp x i + 408 Rs 695 ISBN 978-81-250-4716-2 2012 K Balagopal Sohel Firdos Pankaj Sekhsaria DN Judy Whitehead Sagari R Ramdas Neela Mukherjee Mathew Areeparampil Asmita Kabra Renu Modi M Gopinath Reddy, K Anil Kumar, P Trinadha Rao, Oliver Springate-Baginski Indra Munshi Jyothis Sathyapalan Mahesh Rangarajan Madhav Gadgil Dev Nathan, Govind Kelkar Emmanuel DSilva, B Nagnath Amita Baviskar ww. orientblackswan. com Mumbai Chennai New Delhi Kolkata Bangalore Bhubaneshwar Ernakulam Guwahati Jaipur Lucknow Patna Chandigarh Hyderabad skin senses email&160protected com Economic &038 Political Weekly EPW Orient Blackswan Pvt Ltd NovemBER 17, 2012 vol xlviI no 46 19

Health Care Finance Essay

Complete the following tabularise by writing responses to the questions. Cite the sources in the text and list them at the behind of the table.What criterion must be met for avowedly comparability?Consis excy, verification and unit measuring stick must all be met in order for true criteria. (Chp.14, pg.151) What elements of consistency should be considered? Provide an prototype. The elements of consistency that should be considered is clock periods, consistent mannerology, and inflation factors. An example of a time period would be that you could not comp are a ten month time period to a xii month period instead you would annualize the ten month period. An example of consistent methodology would be to use the same method throughout the entire time period. An example of inflation factors would be if expenses are expended then(prenominal) it is expected for expenses to increase. (Chp.14, pg.151-152) What is the managers obligation in analyse selective information?The mana gers responsibility in comparing data is to recall and apply the elements of consistency. This is circumstantial because the consistency of data will be used to make decisions. (Chp.14, pg.152) What are the 4 common uses of comparative data?The four common uses of comparative data are equation current expenses to current budget, canvas current actual expenses to prior periods in own organization, compare to other organizations, and compare to industry standards. (Chp.14, pg.153-157) What is meant by standardized data?Standardized data is data that aid in comparability. (Chp.14, pg.161)

Friday, January 4, 2019

Analysis of Environmental Issues and Economic Performance

Analysis of environmental issues and sparing performance and tribe niggardness executive summary The main(prenominal) goal with the field of study was to analyse the sex actship from 16 contrasting countries on how, if any, carbonic acid gas dismissal per capita is acquire alter by cosmos slow-wittedness and gross domestic growth per capita by using descriptive statistics and regression. The conclusion is that carbonic acid gas sacking per capita is affected by changes in gross domestic product per capita and that state guessness has no evidentiary relation to carbon dioxide procession per capita. Introduction global warming is one of the biggest problems in the bulgeside(a) societies today.The politician keeps discussing how they force out find solutions together to decrease the carbonic acid gas emissions worldwide. In this subject we ordain try to examine if well-established countries request a utmoster carbonic acid gas emissions and we departing examine how community tightfistedness be touch on emission in our partnership today. Aim The aim with this composition is first of all to examine the birth with gross domestic product per capita and carbonic acid gas emission and population meanness and carbonic acid gas emission. Then we ordain examine if graduate(prenominal) gross domestic product per capita leads to game(prenominal) carbon dioxide emission per capita and if countries with low population constriction argon polluting to a greater extent than countries with in tall spirits population density.Hypothesis 1. 1 I believe that a democracy with high gross domestic product argon to a greater extent than likely to gain a higher(prenominal)(prenominal) CO2 emission per capita since a rural with high GDP be more likely to have higher productiveness achieved with higher efficacy routine. We result hence start with measuring the bilinear necktie between these variable quantitys. H0 ? 0?? 1 GDP? 0 ( correlativity) H1 ? 0=? 1 GDP=0 (No correlational statistics) Hypothesis 1. 2 I believe that a rural with high population density atomic number 18 more likely to have a lower CO2 emission per capita since the inha telephone numberants need travel shorter and less often.We get out on that pointfor measure the linear association for CO2 emission per capita and population density. H0 ? 0?? 2 pop. density? 0 (Correlation) H1 ? 0=? 2 pop. density=0 (No correlation) Main opening We neediness to find out how a good deal linear association the deuce variables has on CO2 per capita. This can be do with this model CO2per capita = ? 0+ ? 1 GDP+? 2 pop. density+ ? H0 ? 1 GDP? 0 H1 ? 1 GDP=0 H0 ? 2 pop. density? 0 H1 ? 2 pop. density=0 We can then satisfy how strong the association these two variables ar against the subject variable CO2 emission per capita. Further on we want to rise the significance of these variables.Data and descriptive statistics The selective information (GDP per capita, CO2 per capita and population density) in this report is a taste of 16 antithetic countries and be downloaded from the transnational Monetary Fund, US department of Energy and OECD. All the entropy argon proportion scale and are continuous. around potential problems with the associated selective information is * Some countries whitethorn have a high productivity achieved by the efficient campaign force and not trough higher energy function. Both ways of high productivity leads to higher GDP per capita, its marvelous to achieve it by efficient cranch force, but it can occur. Some countries (e. g. Australia) may have low population density although they mainly have big populate cities since they have a large come of landmass that is not sui slacken for life. * The contrastive info is not from the same years. CO2 emission per capita is from 2004, population density is from sundry(a) years and GDP per capita is from 2010. To get an supposition of how the entro pyset looks like we need to use up descriptive abridgment. Mean x=xn Median x=n+12th S. D sx=x2-nx2n-1 try variance s2=x2-nx2n-1 Range=xh-xlFor carbon dioxide per capita the have in mind is 9,285 and the medial is 9,49, this will allude that the data is commsolely distributed and we can imbibe in the represent in the auxiliary that t here(predicate) are 8 countries on separately side of the mean. The lopsidedness is 0,71, since the number is absolute it will imply that Co2 emission per capita is slightly skewed to the right. The mean (26226) and median (27407) for GDP per capita come on that this data is normally distributed as well. We can similarly here adopt that in that respect are 8 countries on twain side of the mean. The skewness for GDP per capita is close to zero (0,08) and in that respectfor the scattering is close to symmetric.For population density we have 10 countries underneath the mean. This will imply that the data is not suddenly normally distr ibuted. We can also see that mean (151) and the median (118) differs a bit too much too be normally distributed. Since the mean is higher than the media it suggest that the mean is affected by the high extreme values in the distribution like South Korea. The skewness for population density is 0,94, this fork out that the distribution is skewed to the right. It is important to remember that the data sample is less than 30 and therefor it makes it arduous to pin down if the data is normally distributed or not.In all the 3 opposite datas we see that the range is high, this is delinquent extreme values on some(prenominal) sides of the mean (countries in totally incompatible stages when it comes to riches, assiduity, population, size and general development). The high outflank within the distribution will therefor lead to and high S. D, its also important to notice that the sample is sexual relation small and will not move over a totally correct picture. Correlation First we w ill start with to attend the Pearson correlation coefficient to measure the linear association between the two variables in guesswork 1. 1 and 1. 2.After that we will trial run the significant of the correlation coefficient. The rationalness we will use the Pearson correlation coefficient instead of Spearman correlation coefficient is that the data are continuous and in ratio scale. sx=x2-nx2n-1 sy=y2-ny2n-1 sxy=i=1n(xi-x)(yi-y)n-1 rxy= sxysxsy t=r1-r2n-2tn-2 For the calculation see turn off 1 and 2 in the appendix. The table and the graph 1. 1 show that there is a strong affinity between Co2 emission per capita and GDP (0,7319). In graph 1,2 and the table we see that Co2 and population density have a weak negative correlation (-0,3118).Further on we will need to use a t-test in order to determine the significant of the correlation coefficient and to find out if we are going to keep or reject our hypothesis 1. 1 and 1. 2. little value of t t(n-2,? 2)=t(14,0. 25)=2,145 (with 9 5% effrontery interval) The t value in the table shows that there is a significant relationship between Co2 emission per capita and GDP since 2,145<4,0186. Therefor we will keep the H0 in our hypothesis 1. 1. The t value for Co2 emission per capita and population density shows that there is no significant relationship -2,145<-1,2281<2,145.We will therefore need to reject H0 in favour of H1 in hypothesis 1. 2. multivariate regression We now want to use multivariate regression to test the main hypothesis. In most cases there are unlikely there are only one explanatory factor affecting a mutualist variable. We will therefor use multivariate regression to test if the two different explanatory variables (pop. density and GDP per capita) are affecting the dependent variable CO2 emission per capita. From the table we get the regression line CO2per capita = 4,49432+ 0,0002207 GDP-0,0095956 pop. density+ ?The coefficient of multiple determination (R uncoiled) is 0,59879 normally th is would mean that 59,87% of the changes can be explained. However since we are using a sample, have only a few observation and more than one explanatory factor, adjusted R square will give us a more correct and unprogressive picture. When you add more variables to regression analysis Adjusted R square will only increase if that new variable increases the predictive power of the equation. The adjusted R square shows us that 53,706% of the changes in CO2 emission per capita can be explained by GDP per capita and population density.Significance F tells us that there are only 0,26% pass that the output was obtain by hit-or-miss chance. If we look at residuals in the graph over (the difference between the real(a) value of the dependent value and the predicted dependent value) compared to the predicted value, we can see that there are no certain pattern and that there are cantered around zero. See the appendix for the residual output. By using the F-test we can test if the overall m odel is significant, we will use 95% confidence interval. The searing f-value is 3,806. Since F value (9,70089) is larger than the detailed f-value the model is useful.Since we now know that the overall model is useful we will test the main hypothesis to see if both variables contribute to the model. critical value of t t(n-2,? 2)=t(13,0. 25)=2,160 (with 95% confidence interval) The t-value for GDP per capita is 4,03122, since 4,03122<2,160 we will keep H0 ? 1 GDP? 0. This shows us that GDP per capita is contributing to the model and are affecting CO2 emission per capita. The t-value for population density is -1,43036, since -2,160<-1,43036<2,160 we will reject H0 in favour of H1 ? 2 pop. ensity=0, which means that population density is not contributing to the model. banter in wider social, economic and political linguistic context The results in this report shows that countries with higher GDP per capita are polluting more CO2 per capita. The reason for this is that countr ies with high GDP per capita are achieving this through higher energy use. This means that countries with high wealth have more industry and are consuming more goods and services. Examples of higher pulmonary tuberculosis can be cars, travels, rut and lightning. So the result of higher consumption is higher CO2 emission.A problem is that the wealth in the world is not divide equally between countries or redden within the different countries this implies that CO2 emission is not equally distributed. The Kyoto accord is an internationalist pact whereby countries agree to overturn their nub of green house gases (CO2 is the most important). The treaty opens for countries to barter for credits if its cheaper to reduce the CO2 emission in some other country. This can create a honorable problem since the pie-eyed countries can buy themselves out of the world-polluting problem. ConclusionThe report is using a sample of 16 observation/countries to show that GDP per capita is corr elating with CO2 emission per capita and that a higher GDP per capita leads to higher CO2 emission per capita. This proves that countries with high GDP are more likely to achieve higher productivity through higher energy use. The report also shows that population density has no significant relationship with CO2 emission per capita. We can from all the different observations see that there is a truly large spread between the wealthy and not wealthy countries.The main jot from this report is to investigation further on how you can increase energy capability in a competitive economic world. References * GDP per capita Gross domestic product per capita in US dollars, 2010 Source International Monetary Fund. http//www. imf. org/external/pubs/ft/weo/2012/02/weodata/ (assessed borderland 2012) * Population density number of inhabitants per square kilometre, Source OECD Various years. United Nations. * cytosine Dioxide Emissions in 2004 carbon dioxide emissions per capita (tons/capi ta) 2004, Source US Department of Energy Appendix