Tuesday, April 30, 2019

Review of a picture Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Review of a video recording - Essay ExampleSpending a few minutes at any average American school will no interrogative testify to the fact that it is impossible to have a categoriseroom in the current times that is active by pupils hailing from a single culture. Therefore it goes without saying that the classrooms of today are predominantly multicultural, very unalike the scenario presented in the find and studying in classrooms given to cultural form does endow the students with multiple abilities and skills that go a long way in assuring success in the professional environments given to diversity and multiculturalism. One thing to be noted slightly the given picture is that all the students in the classroom are singularly attentive to the concept being taught, and hence it would not be wrong to think that education in a single culture setting is mostly textbook book driven, which scarce tries to arm the students with the essential social skills, which they will have to ne cessarily acquire in a classroom driven by diversity. The piles of textbooks assorted on the desks placed before the students in the picture, in a way precisely symbolize such conclusions. Perhaps the students are so attentive to what is being taught, because thither is nothing else in their surrounding ambiance that is different and hence stimulates their curiosity and attention. They are focusing on the lesson because the classroom environment dominated by a single culture does not require them to ascend across questions and views that are foreign and new to their culture. No wonder, one could predict that such a class as shown in the picture may give way to students who are academically sound, but may perhaps lack the people skills and cultural literacy that is of immense importance in todays flavorless world. Hill-Jackson, Sewell and Waters testify to the limitations of single culture classrooms by pointing towards the fact that students who bring strong biases and negative s tereotypes some diverse groups will be less likely to develop beliefs and behaviors most consistent with multicultural sensitiveness and responsiveness (Hill-Jackson, Sewell & Waters 176). Once one agrees to the limitations of the single culture classrooms as presented in the picture to a lower place consideration, one may be poised to raise the question as to whether the students depicted in the picture are missing something, and if yes, than what is it? It would not be wrong to say that the loads of textbooks piled before the students in the picture and the content in them do certainly cater to the needs and aspirations of a single race or culture because the given classroom is essentially dominated by the students associated with a single culture. However, things are neer so in case of the multicultural classrooms. In multicultural classrooms the educators are required to configure syllabi and text books which cater to the needs of many cultures and races, and hence education in multicultural classrooms is not merely about a two way dialogue and communication between the students and the teacher, but is also about advance cultural understanding amongst the diverse groups in the classrooms and building a consensus amongst diverse opinions and ways of seeing things (Powell & Caseau 174).

Monday, April 29, 2019

I, Too Poem Analysis Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

I, Too metrical composition Analysis - Essay ExampleWhat the cause stave the black man listened because that is what the black man was outlet through at that sentence. The poem is also written in the present tense. The form of the poem is that of a free verse. It is written in five stanzas. The sentences are short only if that should not fool you. They incur are very strong message. There is a very strong conversational fluidity in the sentences. The shortness of the stanzas and the sentences shows brevity of the poem and how the author was hitting the nail right on the head. He spoke plainly but portrayed the frustration of the black man in a short, precise but to the point manner. This shows the seriousness of the matter at that time that did not require to be written in long sentences to be put across. The short sentences allows the author to use very optimistic terminology not show despair at his current state but show optimism for a better earlyThe author uses the metap hor the darker brother. This is used to refer to the black Americans at the time of slavery. They were not considered equals with the fresh and they would be treated inhumanely just because of the color of their skin. The author further goes ahead and says he allow grow beautiful. This does not mean beautiful in appearance. He meant that he would be intelligent, creative and omniscient with a better personality just like the white man if granted the same opportunity.The author says The black man goes on, laughs, eats his dinner and grows strong. This means that as much as they were loaded they still hoped that they would be better and much stronger in the future. The black man was bidding on time as one of his saviors because it is only with time that he will achieve the equality he longed for. They were hold their lives and growing tough to prepare them for the black uprising that will come. The author goes ahead and uses an assertive language at the time when they were not ev en allowed to speak. He say they will

Sunday, April 28, 2019

Stroke Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words - 2

Stroke - try out ExampleStroke has been classified into two main categories where we have ischemic and hemorrhagic touch. Ischemic concussion takes place when the supply of blood to some area of the brain is impeded causing malfunction of that pop of the brain. Ischemic stroke can result from venous thrombosis, systemic hyperfusion (which refers to a general reduction in the supply of blood such as shock), embolism (impediment/ obstruction caused by an embolus) or thrombosis (obstruction of the flow of blood when blood clots). Cryptogenic stroke is a stroke of unknown origins and lacks clear explanation. Cryptogenic strokes make up a trine of all ischemic strokes. Dependent on symptom extents, stroke episodes can be grouped as posterior circulation infarction (POCI), lacunar infarct (LACI), partial anterior circulation infarct (PACI) or total anterior circulation infarct (TACI). These four episode categories can give insight on the area of the brain that has been impacted, exte nt of stroke, the key cause and prognosis. Approximately 85% of strokes are of ischemic nature (Lindley, 2008, 102).Unlike ischemic stroke, hemorrhagic stroke, on the other hand, occur due to rapture of a vessel of blood or a vascular structure that is abnormal. Intracranial hemorrhage denotes the accrual of blood in any part of the skull vault. Extra-axial hemorrhage is accumulation of blood inside the skull but outside the brain whereas intra-axial hemorrhage is blood inside the brain (caused by intra-ventricular hemorrhage or intra-parenchymal hemorrhage). Subarachnoid hemorrhage (bleeding between the pia mater and the arachnoid mater), subdural hematoma (bleeding in the subdural space) and epidural hematoma (bleeding between the skull and the dura mater) are the commonest kind of extra-axial hemorrhage. Most forms of hemorrhagic stroke posses specific symptoms. Some hemorrhages take place within regions of ischemia in a

Saturday, April 27, 2019

Advance Financial report Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2250 words

communicate Financial report - Essay ExampleThe credit crunch in 2008 and 2009 saw the fall of spoiled financial institutions including Lehman brothers, AIG, Bear Stearns, and the others. The US government and other governments in Europe tried to provide bail-out capital to save companies beca use of the economic consequences of the problem but the crisis was unstoppable (Ryan, 2008).In an effort to prevent the occurrence of connatural problem in the future, the issue on the influence or effect of the use median(a) shelter accounting in the preparation of financial statements becomes a subject of investigation and debate. Fair value is nigh(a) related to market price as SFAS 157 defined as the price that would be received to portion out an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction amid market participants at the measurement date. (FASB, 2006).First, compared with other measurements, FVA permits or requires companies to report in the financial statements more than accurate, timely and comparable entropy on amounts, regardless of the condition in the economy (Ryan, 2009). This means that fair value is more relevant than historical cost when it comes to understanding the assets and liabilities of business organizations. It is believed that fair value does hypothesise the underlying fundamentals most specifically the risk of the asset. In other words the quality of pronounceation is enhanced in giving relevancy more importance than reliability for decision makers (Scott, 2010, citing Plantin, Sapra & Song Shin, 2008). The use of fair value in the financial statements would come closer to valuation conducted by investors or finance people for decision making purposes (Brigham and Houston, 2002).Second, the reported amounts under FVA would more updated on a regular and on-going undercoat (Ryan, 2009) allowing decision makers to know that the company would still an on-going concern. On the premise that accounting information are mea nt to inform the decision makers, then the purpose of

Friday, April 26, 2019

Balancing school work while maintaining full time employment with Essay

rapprochement school work while maintaining full time employment with Wellpoint - Essay Example straight we should distribute the remaining 9 hours. It is quiet important to set clear priorities and outline a hard-and-fast schedule. Workload is different in different semesters, but nonetheless, it would be better not to delay the tasks. On average for the beginning of the learning process 3-4 hours (for example, 615 pm-915 pm) a day may be a sufficient term. Most likely it engages in the evening (for example, Tuesdays and Thursdays) that unfortunately go forth repair the efficiency of employment, but to work a little every day is much easier than to deal with the self-coloured information during twenty-four hours. This time on Monday, Wednesday, Fridays, plus workweekends we use for revising the material.Of the remaining hours, two of them pass on be spent on work-home way and the associated shopping. If you do not cook at home, then 1.5-2 hours will be enough for taking meals . Half an hour will be taken for the procedures which you could not deny in any case, for example, taking shower. The rest hours will be used for the family needs and force majeure during the week. So, the week time would be divided nearly like

Adolescent health Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Adolescent health - Essay ExampleIn the OECD countries, 1 in 2 heavy(a) is overweight and 1 in 6 is obese. In most countries, the rate of overweight large number is estimated to increase by a further 1% per year for the next 10 years (Robb, 2010). consort to various surveys and statistics, 101,310 deaths were reported in UK due to Coronary Heart Disease, the leading cause of death for two sexes, in 2005. Cerebrovascular disease which is the second leading cause of mortality in U K killed 21,966 men and 35,902 women in 2005. Lung cancer was the third leading cause of death in U K which caused 7.15 % death rate in males and 4.65 in women in 2005 (Hawe, 2008) According to the Health Survey of England (2009) childhood and adult obesity have change magnitude drastically over the past 30 years. In England, about 31.4% of boys and 28.2% of the girls atomic number 18 either overweight or obese in 2009. The well-established Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC)conduc ted a study on the effects of childhood obesity on proven cardiovascular adventure factors. The study showed that, in close cases childhood obesity is tracked into adulthood and onward therefore, risk factors would already be present in youth will continue and finally increase risks for both cardiovascular events and diabetes in adulthood. (Logue andSattar, 2011) Figures from the report Statistics on Smoking England 2010 showed that in 2009, smoking contributed to over 81,400 deaths per year in UK. The latest guidelines from the British Hypertension companionship emphasize the importance of changing lifestyle choices in order to reduce the occurrence of serious cardio vascular events.( NHS, 2009) This paper emphasises the need of further action in childhood obesity control both at a population level by changing eating and exercise behaviours and at an individual level by reducing weight in a safe, successful way and thereby reducing the risk of developing diabetes and cardio vasc ular diseases in adulthood. It also describes the campaigns and programmes arranged by public health institutions and other institutions for providing sentience about the hazards of tobacco, alcohol etc and also the necessity to follow a healthy diet from childhood in order to avoid the high risk of some diseases. Role of Public Health Services in Promoting Healthcare from early adolescents The National Health Service (NHS) Stop Smoking Services provides support to admirer plenty waive smoking. This includes intensive support through group therapy or one-to-one support provided by trained personnel, such as specialist smoking cessation advisors and trained nurses and pharmacists. During the period April 2008 to March 2009, 337,054 people successfully quit smoking with NHS Stop Smoking Services. The statistics proved that the success rate of quitting smoking increased with age, from 39% for those below 18, to 53% of those above 60. About 37% of those below 18 were failed in their quit attempt. (NHS, 2009) The Government is concerned about the increased rate of obesity in U K. In 2007, the Government-commissioned foresightedness report forecasted that 60% of men, 50% of women and 25% of children would be obese by 2050, if no action was taken. By considering the impact of obesity on peoples health, increasing the risk of type 2 diabetes, some cancers, and heart and liver disease, it has become a priority for the judicature to take action to reduce obesity. The government works in partnership with local government, charities and business institutions with the aim to reduce obesity by providing clear, undifferentiated messages to people on why they should change their lifestyle, how to do so, and come up with strategies and approaches make this easier.

Thursday, April 25, 2019

102-Exam1 Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

102-Exam1 - Essay ExampleThe modern engine room is now being used as a means to gather credible information from altogether in all sources that are available. So now there is a combined effort of the management and the systems that are created by the management to process these information.Management Information System (MIS) is a computer-based system that administers the flow of information in an organization, thus allowing them to quickly access precise entropy. It particularly points to organizational information systems that contain entropy with large commercial value (Sadagopan, 2004, p. 1). MIS converts the obtained raw data into useful information which is then disseminated to the different departments of an organization that at last becomes the source of idea needed by the management for decision making (Management Information Systems, n.d.). The changes in technology are now becoming the cause of conflict in the application of MIS by organizations. The limiting of so me computer equipments and gadgets that are important to successfully carry out MIS affects the smooth flow of its operations. The essence of which is a delay on the transmission of extremely relevant information.a system to convert data from internal and external sources into information and to communicate that information, in an appropriate form, to managers at all levels in all functions to enable them to make timely and effective decisions from planning, directing, and controlling the activities for which they are responsible. (p. 2)Based on the definition of Lucey, star can never deny the fact the MIS is crucial to the process of decision-making in organizations. Without MIS, the access to the available data would be slower as compared to the times when a company uses it. Thanks to technology, the accumulation of data and its alteration to more useful information has become an easy job. If during the ancient times people had to use their proclaim strength to gather informat ion, the businessmen

Wednesday, April 24, 2019

Nursing Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words - 2

Nursing - Research Paper practiceThe literature on oral care hygienics protocols encompasses techniques such as tooth brushing and use of chlorhexidine wash out (Ignatavicius & Workman, 2015).As argued by Green (2014), a methodology that involves two case studies is use in soft research to determine the research questions that guide discussions and interviews concentrating on the research. The aim of this proposed research is to find out the close effective intervention to reduce breathing machine associated pneumonia in adult ICU patients applying the oral care hygiene protocols. The theoretical framework is utilized in this research to come up with the following questions that are used to direct the deliberations and interviews that are centered on the study. The questions state what is the most effective intervention to reduce breathing apparatus associated pneumonia in adult ICU patients? Performing oral care (use of toothbrush)? Or the use of an antiseptic element (chlor hexidine)?In the prevention of ventilator associated pneumonia, other theories that exist include the application of a ventilator bundle care. Ventilator bundle care stops bacterial translocation and aspiration to the lower respiratory tract in ICU adults undergoing mechanised ventilation (Broaddus et al., 2015). The common theme between application of oral care hygiene protocols and ventilator bundle care is that they both prevent or reduce the incidence of ventilator associated pneumonia in patients receiving mechanical ventilation in the ICU.Tooth brushing technique used in a patient undergoing mechanical ventilation three times a day has been shown to be operative in the prevention of ventilator associated pneumonia. In addition, the use of 0.12% solution chlorhexidine oral swab twice daily is assumed to have a significant change on the reduction of ventilator associated pneumonia. The oral care hygiene is critical

Tuesday, April 23, 2019

Effects of technology and innovation on Pret a manager Essay

Effects of technology and innovation on Pret a manager - Essay ExampleInformation technology plays an essential role in the peculiar growth of retail eating house pains. A retail restaurant industry is a segment of the job which comprises of individuals and organisation whose ar mainly engaged with the selling of ready viandss to the consumers. Pret a manger is one much(prenominal) organisation which belongs to this particular segment. The report will highlight on the areas such as the role of culture technology in the retail restaurant industry as well as more specifically to the company pret a manger. Apart from this the project will also highlight on the different approaches of pret a manger in the context of sustainable development, use of IT and innovations. The report also proposes to highlight the benefits offered by education technology for different elements. Role of Information Technology in Restaurant industry In this celestial sphere the functions of Information technology and innovation is significant as it helps in the process of research and development, financial segment, product development, pricing, distribution and promotion. In other words breeding technology helps all the 4ps of marketing mix. The industry plays an important role in the growth of the economy. It is one of the largest growing food types and intended for immediate consumption. The restaurant industry has some distinguishing factor within itself. The point of difference lies where some restaurants have their dedicated kitchens in their outlets while some other restaurants outlets get supply of the ready food from the factory. The industry includes members such as refreshment stands, fast food restaurants, full service restaurants, caterers and institutional food providers. Large fast food chain majorly contributes to the restaurant industry. In a recent study conducted, where it has been found that on that point were approximately 10 million retail restaurants ava ilable across the world. Among them most of the outlets were owned by individuals and single entities. But there are around 350 restaurants involved in chain business. The big names within this category are McDonalds, Kentucky Fried Chicken (KFC), Pizza hut, Dominos, Subway, Fingers and Del Taco, pret a manger among various other players. The noticeable foodstuffs includes pizzas, burgers, sandwiches, French fries, soups, moaner roasts, baguettes ice creams to the traditional Asian fast foods like noodles, fried rice and soups among the others. Franchise operation acts as the most vital component of this industry but some companies go for direct operation as well. The market shares of different companies are illustrated through a diagram- Figure 1 (Source pugetsoundoff, n.d.). Presently information technology is widely used in restaurant industry. The companies get hugely benefited through the proper execution of information system. The primary advantage of using information techn ology retail restaurant industry is that it gives a competitive advantage to the organization. The other advantage of using information technology in business lies in its capability to transmit data around the world within very less time. The industry is counseling more on IT to take advantage from it. The

Monday, April 22, 2019

Crime Scenes Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

plague Scenes - Essay ExampleCrime scene processing is the real act of processing the scene of a crime in the cranial orbit with the term processing referring to the complete task of examining, sketching, photographing and utilizing field procedures to identify, assess, document/record, process and collect physiological, fingerprint and passport evidence. Crime scene investigation involves logic, science and law and it is necessary to put into consideration the fact that every(prenominal) crime scene, piece of evidence and the approach of investigation differ. However, in all crime scenes, there is a basic protocol or tasks to which the initial responding officer at a crime scene should adhere. Travis and his co-authors put forward that one of the principal aspects of ensuring that the crime scene is secure is to preserve it with minimal disturbance and contamination of physical evidence. The primary response to an incident is normally systematic and expeditious. Following his arrival, the initial responding officer should carry out his first responsibility of evaluating the scene.

Sunday, April 21, 2019

Using Pop-Up Stores to Boost Sales for Online Fashion Shop Essay

victimization Pop-Up Stores to Boost Sales for Online Fashion Shop - Essay ExamplePop-up stores not only help in creating the awareness but in the long run it also helps in boosting gross revenue for the organisation. I realise this issue when I tried to convince my friend to purchase an item that was available online but was not available in the local market. His reaction gave me the problems or the perception of the consumer during online shopping. This lead to my research as to how finish we make people aware of the positive aspects of online shopping. This is when I came across a website discussing about pop-up-up up stores and how it helps in boosting the sales for online shopping.During the discussion in the report our focus will be to find out how does pop-up-up up stores help in making the most out of pop-up shops and offline shops or spaces in order to boost the sales and create brand awareness.Another aspect of the research will be to find out the mulct term and long ter m benefits of having an extra outlet or a physical showroom for the products and how it arouse help a brand in terms of increasing the sales.On doing thorough research everyplace the web I found several discussions that have been done about pop-up-up stores. However as the root is closely related to online shopping, I could not find much relevant data related to the feature issue. The discussions were mainly showcasing the popularity of pop-up stores and how it has been helping the retailers in boosting their profit margins. As the economy is stabilizing, there has been a decrease in the available to spaces to set up a showroom (Allen, 2013). This has gone on to encourage the rise of pop-up stores as they can be practically put up anywhere. The idea is to take the consumers by a outrage because they would never be expecting something at that particular place (Pegler, 2011). Another article discussed the benefits of coming up with pop-up stores. The starting time benefit discus sed was that it was beneficial for the landlord as pop-up stores opened

Saturday, April 20, 2019

Network Management Tools Scholarship Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 5750 words

Network concern Tools - Scholarship Essay ExampleThe big burst through that enabled the streaming revolt was the implementation of a new Internet protocol called the User Datagram Protocol (UDP) and new indoctrination modus operandi that compressed audio files into tremendously teensy bundles of info. UDP made streaming media reasonable by transmitting data more resourcefully than prior protocols from the army server everywhere the Internet to the client player or end listener. More up to visualize protocols for instance the Real Time Streaming Protocol (RTSP) are making the transmission of data eve better at your job (Tenenbom, 1996).UDP and RTSP are idyllic for audio dissemination given that they place a high up precedence on unremitting streaming rather than on utter document sanctuary. disparate transmission control protocol and HTTP transmission, when a UDP audio packet drops out, the server keeps sending information, reasoning only a truncated give way as an alternat ive of a massive gap of silence. TCP, on the other hand, keeps trying to resend the addled packet before distributing anything more, cause greater delays and breakups in the audio broadcast (Brenton, 2003). Former to UDP and RTSP transmission, data was move over the Web for the most part via TCP and HTTP. TCP transmission, in difference to UDP and RTSP transmission, is planned to forever and a day channel text documents, email, and HTML web pages over the Internet while enforcing maximum steadfastness and data candor rather than correctness. Since HTTP transmission is based on TCP, it is also not complementary for transmitting multimedia presentations that aver on time-based...UDP and RTSP are idyllic for audio dissemination given that they place a high precedence on unremitting streaming rather than on utter document sanctuary. Disparate TCP and HTTP transmission, when a UDP audio packet drops out, the server keeps sending information, reasoning only a brief malfunction as an alternative of a massive gap of silence. TCP, on the other hand, keeps trying to resend the lost packet before distributing anything more, cause greater delays and breakups in the audio broadcast (Brenton, 2003). Former to UDP and RTSP transmission, data was sent over the Web for the most part via TCP and HTTP. TCP transmission, in difference to UDP and RTSP transmission, is planned to constantly transfer text documents, email, and HTML web pages over the Internet while enforcing maximum steadfastness and data veracity rather than correctness. Since HTTP transmission is based on TCP, it is also not complementary for transmitting multimedia presentations that rely on time-based processes or for large-scale broadcasting (Brenton, 2003).

Evidence-based effects of exercise on the body Research Paper

Evidence-based effects of exercise on the body - Research makeup ExampleThere were thirty four participants, 18 females and 16 males who were divided into two stems, one group had to read for forty minutes every day for a span of two weeks, where as the new(prenominal) group had to exercise for forty minutes for the same time span of two weeks.The results showed there was a difference find in the people who were doing exercise than those who were reading. There was a significance difference noticed in the body image of participants, with no effect on body weight or shape. This arena is very beneficial for exercise promotions as the findings of this research paper can help in forming a strategy in order to encourage exercise and workout programs. However, it is also argued that this study is very limited as it has not included or studied other moderators affecting forces that might affect the tack in body image and/or weight. Therefore, the findings of this study has to be furt her studied and different outside(a) forces have to be included and tested for the accuracy and reliability of this research (Appleton,

Friday, April 19, 2019

Womens Roles Then and Now Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words - 2

Womens Roles Then and Now - Essay ExampleLater we returned to the US in 1788 where John Adams served as vice president and later as a president. M any people know me as a friendly and pleasant individual according to Gelles (1995). I always showed commitment to politics and federalism through the sustainment I gave to my husband. A woman I would express my opinions both in private and public without any fear as I was a keen political observer, creative writer, and prominent first lady. Jane, cannister you tell us about your self as a woman of the nineteenth century? Jane Addams I grew up in Cedarville, Illinois as a daughter of a wealthy man and a tender and kind mother. I wished to pursue medicine but this brought a lot of controversy in MY family because they became sick that I might not get married. As a result, I was taken to Europe for both years so that I could not pressure my parents to allow me to get the degree. However this did not springiness me a fall down, I foresa w WWI IN 1915 in my attempts to prevent war by organizing the Womens sleep Party and the International Congress of Women.In 1917 I was elected president of the Womens International fusion for Peace and Freedom. I am also a founding member of the American Civil Liberties essence and a charter member of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored people according to Berson (2004). I was the founder of the Settlement House Movement. During the reign of President Franklin Roosevelt, I saw most of the issues I had advocated for beingness made policies. As a result, I received numerous awards including the Nobel Peace Prize in 1931. Jane Addams Women of the 19th century experienced a lot and their superiors in life were limited. For instance, women of the 19th century had no choice on career and most of them lived almost like slaves. Women were so depended on men because all the resources belonged to men. An exclusive woman was highly disrespected and attracted social con demnation and pity.

Thursday, April 18, 2019

Importance of Enlightenment to colonial history Essay

Importance of Enlightenment to colonial history - Essay typesetters caseEnlightenment principles contradicted colonial practices and were very instrumental in ending small town. In the nineteenth and eighteenth centuries, the law of colonialism was a subject of argument among the British, French and German philosophers. Key enlightenment thinkers including Diderot, Kant and Smith challenged the notion that it was the business of the Europeans to civilize the world and criticized the cruelty of colonialism. They further insisted that every person had the ability to reason and therefore up to(p) of own government. As far as they were concerned, colonial supremacy was unethical because it entailed expropriation of belongings, forced labor and thrall all of which were against the principles of self governance.According to Diderot, a critic of European colonization, the idea that the colonized individuals gained as a result of civilization by the Europeans was absolutely mistaken an d instead the uncivilized lot was the European colonists. He further opposed colonization by arguing that culture enhanced customs of respect and boosted religion in an individual. However, these norms have a propensity of being undermined when a person is far away from his farming of origin. Additionally, he supposed that in most cases, the colonial empires became the places of severe cruelty since the colonists were distant from the informal sanctions and levelheaded institutions which made them not to exercise restraints, instead demonstrate mans brutal nature at its worst.Some of the proponents of colonization in the seventeenth and sixteenth century, like the Spanish philosophers, wrongly justified colonization by arguing that it was a vital and necessary factor in the realization of the right to commerce. However, Diderot refuted this climb by stating that it was not right for the explorers and foreign traders to access already occupied lands. On the contrary, he say that only the areas that had no human settlements were fit for

Wednesday, April 17, 2019

Database Forensics and Auditing Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

database Forensics and Auditing - Research Paper ExampleThe paper leave focus on the differences between database forensics and databases auditing. This paper has focus on the definition of database forensic and database auditing, the regulation under database auditing, the meaning of Data Access Auditing, and Data Monitoring. The goal is to clarify the comparison between database forensic and auditing tools by analyzing some of their features. In addition, the paper will show the threats that may affect the database and how it keister affect database forensic and auditing. In conclusion, databases can be secured using a number of strategies that restrict unauthorized access, incorrect alteration of data and leaven data integrity to ignore either kind of hacking or losing data. Introduction The Verizon business risk aggroup did an investigation of 90 data breaches occurred in 2008, which revealed an overall score of 285 million stolen records. Likewise, 80% of data breaches occ urred overdue to weak corporate information security and initiated from external sources i.e. from hackers, malicious codes etc. and 20% data breaches were initiated insidely (Goldmann, n.d). Moreover, 49% of data breaches in 2008 were not diagnosed for months. Furthermore, in 2008, 81% organizations affected from credit card breaches were not able to perform their last PCI assessment (Goldmann, n.d). Apart from deploying most updated technology and controls, data is still world compromised. Likewise, tactics of a hacker is categorized as 70 % credentialed users, 10% trading partners and 46% internal threats (Goldmann, n.d). Wikileaks and Stuxnet virus is one of the recent major security breaches. In summary, the increasing numbers of data breaches ar astounding and strive to do more research for database security and protection. It shows that the laws, policies, compliance and regulations are not equal to counter these challenges. In order to protect databases via best practic es, we will first differentiate between database forensics and database auditing, as there two terms will demonstrate adequate protection from potential threats and vulnerabilities. After describing these terms, we will incorporate Microsoft Log miner tool for collecting forensic evidence from a database and for auditing or reviewing database authoritative state, SQL auditing will be incorporated. Database Forensics Database forensics that is also called Oracle forensics is relatively a new evolving field. Database forensics is conducted by different tools that alleviate Oracle Database Administrator (DBA) to re-establish actions performed on the database with the exception of deactivated forensic features. Likewise, database forensics identifies the suspect by extracting traces of an attacker from the database and revert the odd transactions if possible. The primary goal of database forensics is to analyze the vulnerabilities that were utilized and exploited by the threat and to rollback any unofficial data manipulation operations. However, it is a daunting task, as attackers play safe and prefer attacks from other regions and IP addresses that involve different time zones and mediums before extracting data or compromising security controls of a database. Some of the vulnerabilities associated with database compromises include default and unchanged usernames and passwords, passwords are not long, complex or easily guessable, Database is not up to date and missing critical updated

Tuesday, April 16, 2019

Cross-cultural communication Essay Example for Free

Cross-cultural conference EssayCross-cultural communion is an art which cannot be practiced without oral and non- communicative confabulation. Interacting with mickle of the same culture requires certain skills so interacting across polar cultures is a task ahead. every culture doesnt only have its own manner of speaking but also has a unparalleled set of codes and customs this makes verbal and non-verbal communication both key. With over 3000 linguistic processs and umpteen dialects spoken in the conception today, it is impossible for everybody to learn all of them. This humungous variety that is available creates problems for the cross-cultural communication.Apart from this the way words be uttered the accents used add to the problem. In this case, the standard language makes cross-cultural communication easier. For instance mavin form of Arabic language is most common so it is widely used Modern standard Arabic. The same way an official language is given prefer ence when interacting with people of different cultures. A democracy having many an(prenominal) provinces synchronizes on a national language. Every province may have a different language but there is one language which is common to all.The same way the standard language for communication across countries and continents is English. It is the most widely spoken language in the world and helps to overcome many ethnic differences. The reason that English is proved helpful in breaking barriers is that it is derived from other languages so many cultures can easily relate to it. Language is especially all important(predicate) when the interaction is not on fount to face basis. In this type of interaction one cannot get the aid of body language and communication is solely dependent on words.Etiquettes over here emphasize the richness of verbal communication. People should exact c be of their words they shouldnt offend others while speaking. A word which means something good in one l anguage might mean something totally appalling in the other. Care must be taken while selecting words for cross-cultural communication. Slang language especially should be avoided. While the importance of verbal communication is obvious and can be easily seen, the importance of non-verbal communication comes through deliver and knowledge.The value of non-verbal communication is in fact greater than that of verbal communication across cultures. When the verbal communication is weak, non-verbal communication is relied upon. Gestures, eye contact, physical appearance, touch, expressions, silence and behavior speak a lot when we fall shortstop of words. Majority of French people dont understand English language and only travel by in their own language. When tourists visit their homeland it gets difficult for them to communicate. This is where non-verbal communication becomes very important.Actions help in communicating and letting people of different cultures interact without languag e. Some gestures are world widely same, others may submit one thing in one culture and another in another culture. (Reisinger, 2009). Personal blank space or physical proximity is also an important non-verbal communication element. In some cultures, people hate standing too close and maintain some distance between them while in others people stand pretty close while talking and consider it rude to stand apart.To make cross-cultural communication easier people are learning more than languages but it is also very important to look into other cultures and understand their non-verbal communication. Even if language skills are not appropriate, messages can be conveyed if body language is used correctly. It is said that non-verbal communication makes the first impression because even before a person opens the intercommunicate to utter a word, an impression is made. (LeBaron, 2003). Non-verbal interaction is important during face-to-face communication.It can occur through the recepti ve channels- sight, sound, smell, touch or taste. Listeners process the non-verbal communication apart from the verbal one. Charles Darwin was the first man to conduct a study of non-verbal communication. His book The Expressions of the Emotions of Man and Animals was published in 1872. In this writing he argued that animals show emotions on their faces so they communicate a lot without speaking (Davis, 1999). It is said that verbal communication is more important in public speaking and non-verbal communication is very important in interpersonal relationships.Also it is considered more polite is ideas are conveyed by non-verbal cues rather than verbal, especially in embarrassing situations. There are five primary functions of nonverbal bodily behavior in human communication Express emotions Express interpersonal attitudes To accompany speech in managing the cues of interaction between speakers and listeners Self-presentation of ones personality Rituals (greetings) Another impo rtant thing is that during non-verbal communication it is easier to catch someone who is not speaking the truth. Facial expressions and hand movements tell a lot.This also helps the interviewers when people go abroad in search of jobs. An interesting point of view of non-verbal communication is that it is rich in beauty. Cultural dance competitions are held and different cultures perform their own dances. Without speaking a whole story is formed and the message is conveyed. This is the beauty of non-verbal communication (Storti, 1994). It is important to address issues of both verbal and non-verbal communication. It is because in this competitive age those who have an edge over others and are good at everything are successful.ReferencesStorti, C. , 1994, Cross-Cultural Dialogues, Available at http//www. kwintessential. co. uk/cross-cultural/book/crosscultural-dialogues. html Accessed May 12, 2010 Davis, L. ,1999, Doing Culture Cross-Cultural converse in Action, Available at http// www. kwintessential. co. uk/cross-cultural/book/communication-action. html Accessed May 12, 2010 LeBaron, M. ,2003, Cross-Cultural Communication, Available at http//www. beyondintractability. org/essay/cross-cultural_communication/ Accessed May 12, 2010

Monday, April 15, 2019

Learning Team Collaboration Worksheet Essay Example for Free

Learning Team Collaboration Worksheet Essay1. What are the advantages of having diversity in a collaborative learning environment? The point of any collaboration is to bring together different ideas for bingle solution. By exchanging opinions, every unrivaled can decide what works best for the group. When too many like minded stack come together, they dole out the same product. If a group contains all organizers or thinkers, they might leave a 10 page paper of all conflicting ideas because they couldnt agree on one emergence. Historys bloodiest events usually started with one group of likeminded people pushing their ideas onto the rest of the world. 2. How might factors such(prenominal) as learning and work styles affect your groups collaboration? Having a diverse rope of people in a group can only amend it. Thinkers can look at a topic from all sides, which can help a team anticipate arguments and have an say ready. Givers can be the voice of reason, helping the group st ay on task when an organizer or thinker is stuck on a non consequential detail. Adventurers think outside the box, they may come up with the topic itself or can be counted on to liven up a stale presentation. Organizers are decisive choosing what information stays, what gets tossed, where it fits, and how to best unify a paper. Like Henry Fords assembly line, separately person has a role that has to be met for the product to be finished.3. How can critical thinking improve your teams collaboration? Being in a team can generate buffer and creative ideas, making for an interesting project. Critical thinking is the research and facts to uphold those ideas. This involves finding credible sources with binding facts. This question is kicking my butt Ill get it eventually. 4. What are methods for improving team writing?Prewriting is the hourlong step in the writing process, involving the overall topic of a project and all the research. This is where a team can contribute ideas and opi nions, and a rough draft is formed. After this process is finished, the actual writing should be simple. The second draft could be written by one person to ensure that it stays in one voice throughout the paper. Then the team can review the draft and make changes as needed.

The AKA language was protected from outside influence Essay Example for Free

The AKA quarrel was defend from outdoors influence EssayThe writer started his article by describing a group of battalion called Tuvans, who lives in a remote area in the Republic of Tuva, in Russian Federation. The importance of this group came from the fact that they are speaking Tuvan, a language consider by linguists to be among a group of languages that are considered to be on the edge of extinction because of the low verse of people that speak it. The hide out population speak approximately 7000 languages. Tuvan is among the 3500 downhearted languages that are spoken lonesome(prenominal) by 8. 25 million people in the entire world, which is a genuinely low portion of the seven billion people who inhabit the earth. On the other hand, seventy eight percent of the earth population are speaking only 85 languages, Mandarin, Spanish, and English are among the top spoken languages on the globe. Linguist predicted that in the next century almost half of the spoken langua ges may vanish, and at this straits more than 1000 languages are considered on the extinction. The writer mentioned the reasons that lead to this languages dilemma.He mentioned the effect of the dominant languages, that controls communication theory and commerce, on the small one that do not have any defense mechanism, manage tv or currency, to protect its universe of discourse. Because of that the people of Tuva must speak Russian or Chinese if they want to outride in contact with the outside world. The writer then mentioned another endangered languages known as AKA, the indwelling language of AKA people in Plaizi a small village in India. The writer describe its people as a very self-dependent people that produce everything they need in their daily look.The AKA language was protected from outside influence because of the location of the village that makes it very difficult for outsiders to reach it. The authors then described two trends in the field of linguistics. The f irst one is based on the theory of Noam Chomsky who mentioned that all languages came from one iodine origin which is fixed in the charitable genes. The second trend is the increase interest in small endangered languages around the world, and how the field linguists are interested in idiosyncrasies that distinguish each language from the others and the heathenish effects on it.There are 85 percent of the needs to be documented in order to understand it, and the principal(prenominal) reason for this documentation comes from the fact that each language contains unique human experiences that reveals many aspects of life . The writer declared very important point regarding the loss of any language. His main idea was based on the fact that every language contains a valuable information most the culture and the knowledge that accumulated from contemporaries to generation in this culture.The author gave us another congresswoman of vanishing languages which is the Cmiique Itiom, a la nguage used by the Seri in Mexico and how their language contains the knowledge that is important for all humans. Cmiique Itiom managed to carry on its original form without any outside interference . The Seri managed to keep their language untouched mainly because their repugnance to the outsiders. Even the modern commodities likes cars the Seri managed to bring it to their culture but they used for it a unique names that integrated from their own language so they never used there Spanish names.The writer mentioned a centering to preserved the vanishing languages which is to enshrine it in writing and compile a dictionary. . He gave an examples for linguists that worked in those kind of projects like David Harrison and Greg Anderson who compiled the first Tuvan- English dictionary. Also, Steve and Cathay Marlett who worked to finish Cmiique Itiom dictionary, but the writer mentioned very important point which is say in page 86 But saving a language is not something linguists can accomplish, because salvation must come from within.. The salvation must come from the people who are using this language by teaching it to the next generation, and also by using dictionaries and books to preserve it and keeping it active as tenacious there is something to speak about it. Writer Choices The writer starts his article by using a accounting as a hook for the readers, to grab their attention for the rest of the article, and he kept telling the readers antithetical stories about the people he met during his travel.The writer also used creative language ,like figurative language which includes metaphor in many built in beds in the article, and he also used compare and contrast in many other places . Numbers was used by the writers to support his main idea, he mentioned a unique(predicate) numbers related to the languages in the first page. Visuals aid had been used by the writer to illustrate the master of his article in a very professional way, yet it was ver y simple and effective, we can infer that from the beautiful pictures for all the people that he met during his trip. Reflection on the Reading ProcessI appoint the article hard to read at the beginning, but after using SQ4R and reading the article in class for many times it became much easier for me to understand, and this make the whole process of reading very interesting. The language used not always clear, with difficult word as shown below Nomadic roaming about from place to place aimlessly, frequently, or without a fixed pattern of movement. Proselytize to try to persuade people to heart a religion, cause, or group. Dwindle to gradually become smaller. Thatch to make (a roof) with dried plant satisfying (called thatch).Supplant to supersede (another) especially by force or treachery. Atelier a room where an operative works. Propitious likely to have or produce good results. Reading process included skim and Skamming ,summarize the article and annotate the key points in it , and SQ4R. Reaction Languages is the soul of human civilizations. The connection between the two of them is very similar to the relationship between human soul and body because without the sole the body allow for surely collapse because humans need their soul to drive the physical body and to keep him from perishing.In contrast, language plays the same role in people collective awareness about their on existence in the society and culture. Language is the invisible glue that hold the culture pieces together, and without this glue everything will collapse. Its the strong foundation that up hold the society structures and grant it the strength to resist any outside threats. Why the language is so important? Because its the memory of the society.This memory is the experiences and knowledge that transferred from generation to generation until it reached this point in time, and no it will very hard to live without our memories. Losing any language would be similar to someone who lost h is own memory. The only thing he can do is to track a new experiences and knowledge, and to start accumulating new memories about his new life. Unfortunately, it is the same thing for languages, when the people chuck up the sponge their own language in favor for new ones they will lose their cultural experiences and knowledge.They will finally lose their own identity that distinguished them from the rest of humans. Finally, losing any language on earth would be a lost for humanity in general because we will lose our diversity that make life on earth interesting . I think life with one color would be very tedious, and for life to be interesting it should contain whole spectrum of color. Spinoff Topics One of the spinoff topics would be a to study the individuals that ravage their own language and how they adopt with their new languages and cultures.

Saturday, April 13, 2019

Hydraulic Fracturing Essay Example for Free

Hydraulic Fracturing EssayOver the erstwhile(prenominal) few decades, the United States has become heavily reliant on using nonrenewable resources. The excessive practice sessions of these resources, such(prenominal)(prenominal) as coal, atomic number 18 extremely harmful to the environment and can be considered responsible for global mode change and the destruction of a once healthy aviation. Some companies ready claimed to find a reinvigorated source of expertness called pictorial gas, found deep within the Earths crust. Commercials created by these companies body politic that natural gas is easy retrieve, cheap and clean give noticeing. However, these commercials fail to explain that one of the processes of retrieving natural gas, or hydraulic fracturing, is extremely harmful to the environment.Hydraulic fracturing, or fracking, is the process of injecting millions of gallons of irrigate into the ground to crack shale quaver around a gas considerably. When th e shale rocks around the wells argon cracked, it takes natural gas, specifically methane, to flow into the wells. To give out the shale rock, the water injected into the ground has to be at a very high pressure and is loaded with anchor and just about 40,000 gallons of 600 different dangerous chemicals. Once the natural gas has flown into the underground well, it can be extracted and stored in tanks above ground to later be used as an energy source.Fracking for a source of energy is occurring all over the United States. Several masses of shale rock are all over the county, such as the Mancos shale in Utah and Colorado the unfermented Alb either shale in Illinois and Kentucky and the largest shale in the country, the Marcellus Shale. The Marcellus Shale stretches over Pennsylvania, Ohio, New York, West Virginia, Kentucky and Virginia. Large portions of the Marcellus Shale are in New York and Pennsylvania, and the shale rock in these areas have started to be fractured to allow na tural gas to flow into freshly drilled wells.These sites have had an extremely negative effect on the biosphere in these surrounding areas. People living near these fracturing sites have been experiencing several(prenominal) grievances and have been having severe problems with their well water. Many adults have been suffering from terrible headaches, a loss of smell, and have lost their ability to strain foods or drinks. Some childrenliving near fracturing sites have even developed asthma attack, and can badepose go outside without getting ill or struggling to breathe due to air pollution. Some concourse living near fracturing sites have been forced to buy bottled water or water by the gallon because their well water has become so contaminated. Water coming out of the sink is oftentimes tinted chocolate-brown or yellow colors, and can even be lit on fire. Farm animals and pets drinking this water have been getting sick and have suffered hair loss.The harms that are occurring in the biosphere are due to the problems fracking has caused in the lithosphere, hydrosphere, and atmosphere. The lithosphere, or the Earths crust, has been significantly impacted by fracking. Once a fracturing job is completed, retainment ponds are dug and the contaminated water is poured into them. Often times, the toxic water in these bases are able to seep into the ground due to a lack of proper lining. Horizontal drilling in the ground to realise wells leaves giant holes in the Earths surface, which have to be alter once a project is completed.Very specific instructions are given to workers so that the holes can be filled properly, but often only surface is covered. These giant, unfilled holes create unnatural fractures thousands of feet in the ground, allowing toxic fluids to mug up up into the surface into aquifers or even distances up to a mile away from the well. Because of the retainment ponds and the unnatural fractures in the ground, the hydrosphere (or water sources) can become contaminated. These contaminated water sources harm the plants, animals and people that relied on it while it was nevertheless clean. Not only does fracking have a negative impact on the lithosphere and hydrosphere, but it in like manner has a negative impact on the atmosphere.A common natural gas that is extracted from the ground is methane, which is often emitted into the atmosphere from the wells or from piping breaks. Also, high temperatures cause contaminated water to evaporate and constellate into the atmosphere. The chemicals released into the atmosphere hurt the animals and plants that are breathing in all of the toxins, causing illnesses such as asthma or problems such as headaches.Despite all the issues that fracking inflicts on the environment, companies are quick to say that the use of natural gas is both economically and environmentally friendly. Companies such as ConocoPhillips claim that theuse of natural gas go away stimulate the US economy and help t o meet the energy needs of our evolution population. In some ways, these companies are correct. Hydraulic fracturing can help the US economy because it allows the US to rely on its own resources, rather than resources from former(a) countries, such as oil in the Middle East. Also, several workers and truck drivers are needed to carry out fracking projects, creating job opportunities for people who were previously unemployed.Also, companies state that fracking and plane drilling combined create a relatively cheap and productive way of retrieving shale resources. An apparent environmental benefit to fracking is that it burns cleaner than other natural resources such as coal. Coal is used for 44% of the United States electricity, and it is the main cause of air pollution in the US. When coal is burned, it emits toxic materials into the air.These toxic materials house to global warming, and cause acid rain and smog. The natural gases that are commonly retrieved from fracking and hori zontal drilling burn much cleaner than coal, but the process of retrieving natural gas is very environmentally unfriendly. The water befoulment and the methane that is emitted into the atmosphere due to fracking make it equally as harmful as coal burning.Companies have as well been claiming that there is an abundance of natural gases available in the masses of shale rock across the country. Although there may be an abundance of this resource, these companies have not been using natural gases sustainably. If the United States continues to use natural gases at the rate that it does now, every recoverable source of natural gas will have been used up within the next 80 years. Some even believe that the amount of natural gas the US has right now is only enough to last for 10 years, because there are only about 237,746 billion cubic feet of proved reserves.Proved reserves are areas that guarantee that natural gases will be retrieved if that area is drilled. The 80 year theory is much more optimistic, stating that there are other sources of natural gases readily available other than just the proved reserves. Although natural gas may be another nonrenewable resource that is available, it takes away from the drive that people have to find a renewable resource. Many may think that they can feel comfortable with the amount of energy that they have now, and are not concerned that the nonrenewable resources available atthe moment will hang in out. It is great to search for a renewable resource now, because the nonrenewable resources are not being used sustainably and will eventually run out.If we continue to expand fracking operations, the conditions in the environment will continue to worsen. Water taint will most likely spread beyond just where the fracking is occurring, because of the unnatural fracturing in the ground and retainable basins. The conditions of the atmosphere will also continue to worsen because toxins will continue to disperse into the air, and met hane will continue to leak from pipes and the wells. Many people who live near fracking sites may be forced to leave their homes on peak of high levels of water and air contamination.Also, the masses of shale that are currently being used could eventually run out of natural gas, so companies will be forced to move onto another shale, creating more health hazards in other areas. As the number of fracking sites that are developed and abandoned increases, the aesthetic value of rude areas will decrease. Rather than views of trees, rivers and countrysides, there will be views of abandoned wells and trucks transporting massive amounts of chemicals.Hydraulic fracturing is undeniably a Tragedy of the Commons. It is practically impossible for the environmental Protection Agency to jell any lovely of regulation on fracking. In 1975, industries managed to prevent the EPA from regulating or testing 70,000 different chemicals, including many of the chemicals that are used for fracking. For large industries, keeping the usuals health in mind is a consequence and it minimizes the potential to make massive profits. Industries are able to move onto land near peoples homes and contaminate their air and water without any regulations whatsoever.In Pennsylvania, unregulated fracking is running rampant. The Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection has done nothing with the evidence of illnesses caused by fracking, leaving the industries able to contaminate clean sources with any chemical they need. Politics are leaning towards supporting the industries rather than the publics health because they are much more interested in stimulating the economy than they are in protecting public safety.Hydraulic fracturing is presented as an environmentally friendly way to retrieve energy, but it is has been causing contamination in previously clean air and water. Hydraulic Fracturing is even more dangerous because the EPA cant place regulations on it, leaving innocent people at the expense of the dangerous chemicals. Overall, the negative effects that fracking has on the environment are extremely significant, and it either needs to be stopped or heavily regulated.

Friday, April 12, 2019

How Is the Continual Battle of Nature vs Human Technology Represented Essay Example for Free

How Is the Continual Battle of Nature vs kind-hearted Technology Represented EssayExplain how Bradbury uses this story to question humans reliance on technology The digest was created for the sole purpose of serving mankind. The star sign can non save the family, or humans, from the viciousness of a nuclear bomb. By the time the call forer is exposed to the house, the owners have been eradicated, their images burned on wood in one titanic instant. The house continues to make breakfast, have little robotic mice that clean the house, and even read poetry for, essentially, no one. When the story begins, it appears that machinery has triumphed over humans.Humankind might have fallen beneath the properly nuclear bomb, but technology has not. Furthermore, while the family relied on the house to take care of them, the house does not require them to survive. However, as the story proceeds, the reader watches as the house is attacked by a flame. As the house scrambles to save itse lf, there is a sense of panic. Doors sprang tightly shut and blind robot faces peered down with tap m revealhs gushing green chemical. In the end, the house succumbs to the blaze and crumbles.The only bit of technology be is the dying voice of the house, proclaiming the current day to be August 5, 2026. While technology has ultimately incapacitated the battle of survival, humans lost the war long ago. Bradbury uses this story as a warning of fairish how little technology and nature care for the endurance of humanity. Not one would mind, neither bird nor tree, if mankind perished utterly. And Spring herself, when she woke at dawn. Would scarcely k like a shot that we were gone. This is seen throughout the story, as the house continues to function without the aid of the family that owns it. valet developed this technology to help them, but the technology does not care if humans are slightly to use its services. Ultimately, Bradbury warns not about the advancement of technology b ut rather the complete dependence on it. The conveniences that the house provides appear to be beneficial, but in the end are completely useless. Bradbury in any case points out the lack of humanity within the machinery of the house. Instead of a family having to cook and clean, the house does it for them. There is no love within the house.While it would require more work, perhaps it would be more meaningful for a family to work together to keep their house running properly. Instead of being a mere house, it would belong a home. Techniques Bradbury uses throughout the story? 1)Personification 2)Foreshadowing 3)doubt 1)The most often used literary technique to describe the house is personification, where you give inanimate objects human-like characteristics. The stove is given human actions, In the kitchen the breakfast stove gave a sizz sigh and ejected from its warm interior.This passage shows that Bradbury has given a breakfast stove the ability to hiss a sigh. Stoves are not p hysically able to sigh. Rain is personified, And the rain tapped on the empty house, echoing. The rain did not literally tap on the house, it means that the rain was making noise as it fell and came into strain with the house. 2)Bradbury uses is foreshadowing, hinting clues that suggest events that will posterior happen. The voice-clock sang, worriedly, Ticktock, seven o clock, time to get up, time to get up, seven o clockAs if it were afraid that nobody would. This shows that the house was sensing something was going to be unlike today. It foreshadows that something bad may happen. There is a fire in the house, Smoke and silence. A great meter of smoke. . The silence is foreshadowing that the house has given up and died. Foreshadowing is used by Bradbury to hint later events. 3)Bradbury uses suspense to create an effective story. The dog is injured from the nuclear bomb. once huge and fleshy, but now gone to bone and covered with sores.This creates suspense because it makes th e reader wonder if the dog is going to survive. When a fire is ablaze in the house. The fire burst the house and het it slam flat down, puffing out skirts of spark and smoke. It makes the reader wonder what will happen next and how the house is going to result. Suspense is used to build up the excitement of the reader making them want to read on to recall out. In conclusion, personification, fore shadowing and suspense are used to create There Will deal Soft Rains. Bradbury uses literary elements to make a successful short story.

Wednesday, April 10, 2019

Difference between active and passive forms Essay Example for Free

Difference between diligent and hands-off forms raiseDifference between active and passive formsIntroductionActive forms Inactive forms of the sentence, the mover or the social function that is doing the action is the subject of the sentence while the one that is receiving the action is the subject of the sentence. nigh of the sentences in the real world are in the active forms.It is forever and a day in the form(Action promoter or the subject)+(Verb)+( The action receiver or the object)ExampleJohn wrote the showHereJohn is the subject, wrote is the verb and essay is the object. Passive Form In the passive form, the things that are doing the action are the subject of the sentences while the thing that is doing the action is the object and it is placed at the end of the sentence after the word by. The passive form is always used when one thinks that the object or the receiver of the action is to be emphasise or is deemed to be more important. This form is also used t o exercise courtesy where one doesnt want to mention the actions doer or the doer of the action is not known.It is always in the form(Action receiver)+(past participle of the verb in question)+(by)+(action doer)ExampleThe essay was written by johnEssay is the action receiver, written is the past participle of wrote, by precedes the doer, JohnReferencesCourtland L. Bovee John V. Thill, July 21, 2013. Business Communication forthwith (12th Edition.Source document

Monday, April 8, 2019

Mango Street Essay Essay Example for Free

mango tree Street move EssayThroughout history, women have been seen as inferior to men. In the bracing, The House On Mango Street, the main character, Esperanza sees many a(prenominal) examples of women who are treated lower by their husbands. These women are imprisoned in their own homes on Mango Street. The author, Sandra Cisneros uses the motif of imprison Females to show that women have been seen as inferior to men. There were many chapters in the novel in which women were seen as inferior to men.On page 79 in the novel, Rafael gets locked indoors because her husband is terror-stricken Rafaela will run away since she is too beautiful to look at. Rafael is just one of the many victims of Imprisoned Females on Mango Street. She is scared to leave because she thinks her husband will do something, he doesnt postulate other man to take her away from him. Esperazana could also been considered a Imprisoned Female. All she wants to do is rattling in a house she can call her own and be free but she is stuck on Mango Street where she meets all these other women who are stuck like her and she thinks she will never get out. manpower treat women like they are nothing. Why? Because they are scared. frighten that women will leave them for someone better. Scared that women will tell someone of all the awful things they have done to them. Scared that women will at last tell the truth.

Sunday, April 7, 2019

How to Make a Mask Essay Example for Free

How to Make a Mask EssayWhen it comes to the world of cherish building, mask making, or prosthetics their are specific steps to follow. Otherwise if one were to mess up they elicit end up on the hospital due to chemical amalgamateing. Now its not as dangerous as it sounds besides its never good to inhale any type of fumes, dont trust to end up in the hospital. The first approach to build a mask or any type of ingest-up build is be cautious and aware(predicate). If you are not cautious and aware thusly as I said before you may end up in the hospital, with just ab turn out sort of serious Illness.When employmenting on a build al ways wear a mask, gloves, and an apron to protect your clothes. second step to mask making is the design know what youre going to create. get it on up with different concepts of one idea, so that youll hold back more than just one concept to work pip of, as well as knowing or feeling which concept is the best. After the do by of concepts, id eas and brainstorming work of the concept or in other words play with frame. Youre going to occupy to sculpt your concept on clay. Now it is doable with cheap clay such as Amacos playn clay, short letter dry modeling clay.Its not the best clay to use but it gets the job done. Although what I hurt heard from other sculptors and hobbiest that marblex or sculptey is better for sculpting. So when you have chosen what type of clay to use you then sculpt out your concept, taking out or adding in detail. After sculpting out your concept you allow for take you pierce to dry. Usu totallyy it takes about two to three days but its always best to at least wait for a week making sure that it is tout ensemble dry. Always check for cracks as well that is never good for your finally piece making sure that if you do see cracks surfeit them in with clay.After the piece has totally dried you will need to hurl it. This is where a breathing mask definitely comes in handy. When it comes to mo lding their are many brands and ways to mold your clay piece, from liquid latex to silicone rubber. Personally I use Body image Silicone Rubber. It last long and is always reusable if you indispensableness to make more of the same mold or cast. The more traditional way of molding is using Alginate but the thing about alginate is that it is provided good for a one time use from then on it shrinks and deteriorates. All in all it is a matter of preference.With using body double as your mold, it is a two part mix so taking part A and part B mix the two together until you have the right consistency. Take a brush, dip it into the mix and dab/ brush the body double silicone onto your clay piece, until it is completely covered. After telling it dry for a while, not completely, you will need to make your mother mold. The mother mold is the mold that hold the outside of your first mold, it maintains the structure of the mold and sculpt. In order to do this you will need Plaster of Paris, p ower and goss based. Starting with the power based plasterwork. upchuck the plaster in a disposable bucket or bowl.How much you use will attend on the size of your sculpt. When measuring how how you need always add water first then the plaster, fill the bowl with plaster until you have a island in the middle of the water. Make sure to mix thoroughly breaking up any and all clumps of plaster. Mix until you have a constancy of cookie borecole or pancake batter. one time you are at the right consistency slowly pour the plaster over the rubberized mold. Then with the plaster stips dip them in warm water and place it on authorize of your plaster mold, have at most three to five layers of plaster stips ontop of the plast mold.Once that is complete it will take up to a week (maybe more depending on the amount of plaster used) for it to dry. After it is completely dry the next step is to take the mold out so the cast can be made. Slowly remove the mold from the clay piece, prying fro m each side loosening and pulling away. Once you have removed you mold, you can cast it with fiberglass resin, plastic resin, epoxy, or silicone rubber etc. In other words you can filled it will whatever type of material you want to use. Whichever material you use you mature the right amount to put into your mold.Pour the liquid into the mold then using a sloshing technique you shlosh the liquid around in the mold covering all sides and details. You want to do this about three time depends on the type of material you are using, it can straggle depending on the material. Once that is complete let it dry this process with take about two to three days. When it is completely dry remove the mask. First pry the body double rubber silicone off the plaster, then slowly peel the body double away until it is removed from the mask. Then it is complete you have your mask, where it to parties, halloween, or whatever the use maybe.

Education in the Philippines Essay Example for Free

Education in the Philippines EssayEducation, a continuous service of growth from womb to tomb that is most essential to man for development and progress. In technological sense, it is the go by which society deliberately transmits its accumulated intimacy, values and skills from one generation to an otherwise through institutions. This technical process is sometimes called schooling, when referring to the compulsory education of the youth. The continuous growth of the population in the Philippines has been a nifty factor that affects the quality of education one can experience. Thither are greater and greater takings of students in a class that a eruditeness institution can accommodate. Other than that, some other problems occurred such as lack of qualified teachers, inadequate classrooms and ineffective programs. These are more evident to universal schools here in the country. Recognizant of this reality, small communities in the urban part of the country have been sensi tively responding to this situation. half-size by little, the number of private learning institutes have been massively growing in some areas in the city.The sustenance of these private schools is, in a very large extent, depend upon enrolment. School administrators have been unendingly seeking ways and means to upgrade the standards and quality of their respective school in terms of its obstetrical delivery system and other related components of quality education. This have been noticeable to Barangay Bagong Silangan because of the numerous learning centers that was established here for the past ten years.Parents, regardless of the schools standards, enroll their children to these private learning centers believing that they would experience a separate quality education than that of in the public schools. It is, most of the people, if not everybodys interest, to be equipped with knowledge and skills for productive endeavor in the future. The vital reason for a researcher to con duct a piece of work is to make the parents aware if their children are getting the quality of education that they want for them in these private learning centers.

Saturday, April 6, 2019

The Sonyericsson Alliance Essay Example for Free

The Sonyericsson Alliance EssayIn 2001, the mobile phone terminal market knowledge base was shaken by the announcement of the engagement between two giants of their respective worlds. On one side the telecommunication reference Ericsson, on the other the entertainment and communications company Sony. As the result of the strategic alliance, an agreement focused on their respective mobile phone terminals melodic phrasees bringing to life a new control stick venture aiming to gain consistent market shares during the next five years of operations. In this analysis I will start from an introduction of the respective companies, a short overview of their market positioning and a apprize historical overview of the birth of their joint venture. Further on I will use the tools taken from (Jolly, 2001) to canvass the conditions and strategic management (steering) of this alliance.1. Introduction1.1 Ab knocked out(p) the partnersEricsson Ericsson, a Swedish based company, is the w orld-leading supplier in telecommunications systems with the largest customer base, including the worlds top 10 operators. The company provides total solutions covering the whole range, from systems and applications to mobile phones and other communications tools.Ericsson has been participating worldwide for over 1 century and today operates in more than 140 countries, with 95,000 employees based in 24 countries. Annual investments in technical development average 15 percent of sales. These investments contribute to Ericssons leading in mobile infrastructure and mobile Internet, with nearly twice the size of the closest competitor. Four out of every 10 mobile calls are handled by Ericsson equipment. Ericsson has a strong focus on RD and has filed 1,300 transparent applications filed during 2000. Ericsson has set several standards to the mobile communication market, like CDMA2000, WCDMA or Bluetooth technology (see Appendix 1). Ericsson is thus the world leader in wideband techno logy.2/2Ericsson supplies operators and service providers around the world withend-to-end solutions in mobile and broadband Internet. Ericsson supplies solutions for all existing mobile systems, including future 3G mobile systems, as well as broadband multi-service networks and broadband access. The solutions include network infrastructure, access equipment and terminals, application enablers and global services to support both business and private communications. (For details see www.ericsson.com) Ericsson achieved Net sales of 31 bUSD in 2001, but achieved a negatively charged Net Income of -2.8 bUSD. (Financial Report 2001, Ericsson)SonyFounded in 1946 as Tokyo Tsushin Kenkyujo (Tokyo Telecommunications Laboratory) by Mr. Ibuka , Sony has become the world-leading manufacturer of audio, video, games, communications and entropy technology products for personal and professional market. Sony has set several standards to the consumer electronics market and driven technology develop ment (see duck 1).

Friday, April 5, 2019

L. Chinense Growth Conditions and Artificial Pollination

L. Chinense Growth Conditions and Artificial PollinationINTRODUCTIONThe genus genus Liriodendron is a distinctive and valuable hardwood that has great ecological and economic values. It rebels fast and the wood is take down and well-situated, so it is cultivated in many temperate mountains of the world for wood production 1-4 and its recommended for waste landfill redress 5. Its a flowering plant with beautiful leaves and hence use for urban landscaping as it provides blend as well. Besides, the tree genus Liriodendron is valued as materials source for honey production, chemical extracts 6-8, biomass and biofuels 9, 10.The genus Liriodendron survived from the persist Ice Age and was distributed in large geographical ranges of North American and East Asian respectively. presently it comprises only two morphologically similar species, Liriodendron tulipifera L. and Liriodendron chinense (Hemsl.) Sarg. 11. However L. chinense (Liriodendron chinense (Hemsl.) Sarg.) has been regard ed as a graduate(preno secondal)- hourded and endangered plant because it occurs in small, isolated and thinly scattered populations 12. L. chinense was listed in the IUCN Red List of menace Plants in China 13, and has currently been classified as a lower risk or near-threatened species (http//www.iucnredlist.org/).In the process of L. chinense sexual reproduction, the low seed setting percentage is a marked trait. afterward historic period of statistics, the setting percentage of L. chinense is not more than 10% in natural state, and it is hard to find the seedling in natural environment 14. In the last two decades, many researchers grant conducted studies, such as examining the congress contribution of the pollen fertility and transfer, availability of resources, flower or seed predation and genetics, to find out why L. chinense only produce few seeds 15-18. Unfortunately, there has been no consistent conclusion. Pollination, as a key face in reproductive process of plants , especially in rare or endangered plant species worry L. chinense that have low seed production, is probably one of the weak links in the reproductive cycle. any(prenominal) barrier occurring between pollen and brand name fundamental interaction will lead to low seed production, however, few studies have focused on the pollination in L. chinense. Zhou and Fan examined the pollen quality, pollen germination and return on stigma using fluorochroma method. The results indicated that in vivo the pollen grains can load on about 64% pistils of the gynoecium, but the rate of pollen thermionic organ pipe passing the style is low, only 24% 19. In addition to few pollen vacuum tubes passing the style, the pollen tubes may grow twined or in no direction, suggesting that only a smaller percent of the pollen tubes penetrates the micropyle and enter into ovule 20, 21. These results show that the interaction between pollen and stigma occurs in distinct phases after(prenominal) pollen gr ains loading on stigma, and there are different barriers distributed in stigma surface, style and ovule during pollen tube growth.In self-compatible plants, the pollen-stigma interaction comprises six stages between pollen and pistil pollen capture and adhesion, pollen hydration, pollen germination, penetration, growth of pollen tube through the stigma and style, pollen tube enter into the ovule and discharge the sperm cells 22. After the pollen-stigma interaction, the nuclei of two gametes flow to form the zygote. However, in self-incompatible plants, no matter the barriers occurs in which stage of interaction, there is no formation of a viable zygote. Previous studies in L. chinense showed that many pollen grains germinated on pistils of the gynoecium but few pollen tubes could penetrate the pistil style, and most of the pollen tube couldnt pass through micropyle and enter into ovule. This phenomenon suggests that there might be other factors affecting pollen-stigma interaction i n L. chinense. To verify this hypothesis, we conducted a governing bodyatic morphological and proteomic analysis on the pistil of L. chinense during pollination. The result provides new insights in the mechanism underlying sexual reproduction in L. chinense.MATERIALS AND METHODSL. chinense growth conditions and artificial pollinationThe L. chinense plants was grown in Wuhan Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences. During the flowering season, which extends from late April to May, the branches with flower buds which were about to open were cut from the tree and cultivated with half-strength Hoaglands nutrient solution in greenhouse under 14 h light (400-800molm-2s-1) at 262oC and 10 h darkness at 202 oC 23. The relative humidness was maintained at 60-70% 19. The flower buds with an opening on top and a probability of opening the sideline day were chosen and the androecium was emasculated at night before pollination. Artificial pollination was done the close afternoon as foll ow Mature pollen grains were harvested from open flowers and and so were smeared on the pistils without androecium using a soft brush. This artificially pollinated pistil was cut from the flower 30 minutes after pollination and stored in liquid nitrogen. Similarly, the pistil after 1 h pollination was harvested, stored in liquid nitrogen. The harvested un-pollinated pistil was stored in liquid nitrogen. All threesome of these renders were named as S2, S3, and S1 respectively and stored in -80 oC freezer. All three treatments (S1, S2, and S3) were repeated five times respectively.Paraffin sectionAnthers and pistils were stiff in FAA solution containing 5% glacial acetic acid, 5% formaldehyde, 70% ethanol at way temperature for 24 h. After dehydration and infiltration, the samples were embedded in paraffin and cut into 10-m-thick sections by Rotary Microtome Leica RM2265 (Germany). so the sections were sealed by neutral balsam and photographed by Olympus-BX51 (Japan).Gel- ground proteomics in L. chinenseProtein extraction and 2-DEProteins of pistils were extracted as previously describe 24. Briefly, 0.25-0.3 g of pistils were ground in 2 ml pre-cooled homogenization buffer which contains 20 mM Tris-HCl (pH7.5), 250 mM sucrose, 10mM EGTA, 1% Triton X-100, 1 mM PMSF, and 1 mM DTT. The homogenate was shifted into a motor(a) tube and centrifuged at 12000g for 30 min at 4 oC. The supernatant was collected in new centrifugal tube and mixed with 3 volumes frigid acetone. The tube was kept at -20 oC at least 2 h, and then centrifuged at 12000g for 30 min at 4 oC, and the precipitate was collected and washed with cold acetone three times. After centrifugation, the pellet was vacuum-dried. The immobilized pH gradient strips (17 cm, pH 4-7 linear, Bio-Rad, USA) were loaded with 350 l sample buffer containing 800 g sample proteins at room temperature in tray for 16 h. Isoelectric focusing was performed with the PROTEAN IEF system (Bio-Rad, USA) for a total 80000 V-hr . thence the strips were equilibrated in equilibration buffer I (6 M carbamide, 2% SDS, 0.375 M Tris-HCl pH 8.8, 20% glycerol, and 130 mM dithiothreitol) for 15 min and equilibration buffer II (6 M urea, 2% SDS, 0.375 M Tris-HCl pH 8.8, 20% glycerol, and 135 mM iodoacetamide) for 15 min sequentially. After equilibration, sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel cataphoresis (SDS-PAGE) was carried out with 12% acrylamide gels. The 2-DE gels were stained with Coomassie Brilliant Blue (CBB) R-250.Image analysis of 2-DE gelsThe 2-DE gels were scanned at 600 DPI resolutions with an EPSON PERFECTIONTM V700 PHOTO image scanner (Epson (china) Co., Ltd.). The images were analyzed with PDQuestTM 2-DE Analysis Software (Version 8.0, Bio-Rad, USA). Spot volumes were normalized by total spot volumes per gel to avoid experimental variations among 2-DE gels. Comparisons and statistical analysis were performed using the calculated average values of each biological replicate among the three diff erent treatments. The protein spots with more than a two fold change among treatments and that passed a Students t-test (P Protein appellation by MALDI-TOF/TOF-MSThe significant differentially expressed spots were excised from the gel manually, and washed with double distilled pissing twice for 20 min, then distained with 100 l of 50 mM NH4HCO3 in 50% v/v acetonitrile (ACN) for 1 h until the gel is mostly colorless at room temperature. The liquid was take and 50 l ACN was added to dehydrate the gel. After drying the gel, 25 mM NH4HCO3 containing 10 pmol trypsin (Promega, Madison, WI, USA) was added to the tube and kept at 4 oC for 1 h, and then it was kept at 37 oC overnight. The proteins were then digested according to the method described before 25. The peptides were extracted and collected using three kinds of solution (0.1% TFA/99.9% acetonitrile, 0.1% TFA/99.9% H2O, 0.1% TFA/50% acetonitrile/49.9% H2O) from gel spot. The peptide solution was concentrated to 10 l, and then des alted by ZipTip C18 pipette tips (Millipore, Bedford, MA, USA). After trypsin digestion, the protein peptides were dried by SpeedVac. Then peptides were dissolved in 0.1% trifluoroacetic acid, and then 1 l of the sample solution was loaded on Anchor Chip Standard (Bruker Daltonics Inc, Germany). After the Anchor Chip drying, the matrix solution (20 g/L HCCA, TA 95%) was loaded on office corresponding to the location of the sample to a target spot. Through ultrafleXtreme (Bruker Daltonics Inc, Germany) Operation, the PMF data was obtained. The instrument parameters for MS acquisition were list as follows laser intensity was 20%-26%, reflector detector voltage was 2438 V. Protein identification using MS/MS raw data was performed with flexAnalysis bundle (Bruker Daltonics Inc, Germany) coupled with Mascot Server software (version 2.4.01) based on the NCBI protein database and SwissPort database of green plants. The searching parameters were set as follows peptide masses were assumed to be monoisotopic, 100 ppm was used as mass accuracy, a maximum of one missing cleavage site, and modifications which included Carbamidomethy and Oxidation were considered. (The timestamp of NCBI protein database is 2011/11/09, there were 949,856 sequences of Green Plants and 5,512,397,590 redundant total sequences in NCBI database the timestamp of SwissPort 57.15, there were 28,783 sequences of Green Plants and 515,203 sequences non-redundant total sequences in SwissPort). The proteins which rafts greater than 42 (NCBI) or 26 (SwissPort) (PGel-free proteomics in L. chinenseProtein extractionThe protein samples for iTRAQ were recovered in lysis buffer (30 mM Tris-HCl, pH 8.5, 7 M urea, 2 M thiourea, and 4% w/v CHAPS) by phenol extraction and methyl alcohol/ammonium acetate precipitation as described previously 26. The protein pellets were resuspended in buffer (7 M urea, 2 M thiourea, 4 % CHAPS and 10 mM DTT) in a minimal volume and protein was quantified using BCA protein chec kout kit (Pierce, USA).Digestion and iTRAQ labelingAbout 100 g proteins of each sample per tube were prepared. Then it was reduced by adding DTT to a final concentration of 12 mM and incubated for 1 h at 37 oC. Subsequently, iodoacetamide was added to a final concentration of 50 mM, and the mixture was incubated for 1 h at room temperature in the dark. Then the mixture was transferred to centrifugal units (VN01H02, Sartorius, Germany) and centrifuged at 12,000g for 20 min, and then the filtrate was discarded. Subsequently, 8 mM urea solution was added into the centrifugal units and centrifuged, repeated this step twice. After that, 100 l dilute buffer (50 mM triethylammonium bicarbonate) was added into the centrifugal units and centrifuged. Then 50 l dilute buffer containing 2 g modified trypsin (Promega) was added into the centrifugal units at 37 oC overnight. The resulting peptides were then labeled with iTRAQ reagents (AB Sciex, USA) according to the manufacturers instructions. F or each time point (i.e., S1, S2, and S3), each sample was iTRAQ labeled 3 times except S3. (i.e., 113-, 116-, 119-iTRAQ tags for S1 3 replicates. 114-, 117-, 121-iTRAQ tags for S2 3 replicates. 115-, 118- iTRAQ tags for S3 2 replicates.)MS/MS AnalysisThen the mixture of labeled peptides was concentrated and acidified to a total volume of 2 mL. Labeled peptides were desalted with C18-solid phase extraction and dissolved in strong cation exchange (SCX) settlement A (25% (v/v) acetonitrile, 10 mM ammonium formate, and 0.1% (v/v) formic acid (pH 2.8). The peptides were fractionated using an Agilent HPLC system 1260 with a polysulfoethylA column (2.1 100 mm, 5 m, 300 PolyLC, Columbia, MD, USA). Peptides were eluted with a linear gradient of 020% solvent B (25% (v/v) acetonitrile and 500 mM ammonium formate (pH 6.8) over 50 min followed by ramping up to 100% solvent B in 5 min. The absorbance at 280 nm was monitored, and a total of 37 fractions were collected. The fractions were combi ned into 12 final fractions and lyophilized. A quadrupole time-of-flight (LTQ Orbitrap XL) MS system (Thermo Fisher Scientific, Bremen, Germany) was applied as described previously 27. It interfaced with an Eksigentnano-LC AS2 system (Eksigent Technologies, LLC, Dublin, CA) using high energy collision dissociation (HCD). Each fraction was loaded onto an Agilent Zorbax 300SB-C18 trap column (0.3 mm id 5 mm length, 5 m particle size) with a flow rate of 5 l/min for 10 min. Reversed-phase C18chromatographic separation of peptides was carried out on a pre-packed BetaBasic C18PicoFrit column (75 m id 10 cm length, raw(a) Objective, Woburn, MA) at 300 nl/min using the following gradient 5% B for 1 min as an equilibration status 60% B for 99 min as a gradient 90% B for 5 min as a washing status 5% B for 10 min as an equilibration status (solvent A 0.1% formic acid in 97% water, 3% ACN solvent B 0.1% formic acid in 97% ACN, 3% water).Database Search and QuantificationThe MS/MS data were processed by a thorough search considering biological modification and amino acid substitution against non-redundant NCBI green plants 20131014.fasta (1,544,439 contigs) under the Sequestalgorithm of Proteome Discoverer.1.4 software (Thermo Fisher Scientific Inc.). Protein function analysis by blast2go software (http//www.blast2go.com/b2ghome) was conducted according to the early literature 28-31.The search results were passed through additional filters before exporting the data. For protein identification, the filters were set as follows significance threshold Phttp//mascot-pc/mascot/help/quant_config_help.html) S2/S1 or S3/S1 ratios 2 and

Thursday, April 4, 2019

Effectiveness of Performance Related Pay: NHS Case Study

Effectiveness of Performance related Pay NHS Case StudyExecutive SummaryThe interest say evaluates how the aims of Performance Related Pay (PRP) schemes atomic number 18 underpinned by theory, focuses on how PRP theory relates to the aims and objectives of the NHS and con military positionrs how effective the online PRP policy is at heart the NHS with specific focus on whether the current scheme meets the conveys of the current NHS geological formation.The NHS has seen relation success where PRP schemes afford been utilize, with 51% of NHS coiffurers recently commenting that PRP schemes in their trust had resulted in employees take shapeing harder. Although 61% of the ply involved with NHS trusts operating these schemes adverted the idea of rewarding macrocosm presentation was divisive and undermined the general co-operation of its round .The overall benefits of PRP accept facilitating and implementing interpolate in a structured manner, aligning the employees o bjectives with the wider refinements of the organisation and introducing structured rewards in a reasonably fashion.Although the aims of the PRP scheme may be aligned to the employment st putgy, they will single survive if the end goal is enough to motivate the individual. Within the NHS nonp atomic number 18il would suggest there control to be special concepts for writ of execution direction to focus on, such as content, departmental resource and locomote development for PRP schemes to be a success.When the introduction of PRP to either organisation is applied, it is supposed to encourage loveliness and equality with rewards. However criticism of PRP inside the NHS organisation suggests that it does non provide fairness and equality. look has shown that the perception is that PRP benefits those in more fiscal or senior orientated roles than it does for those down in the mouther down the organisation.PRP schemes will be hard to introduce to NHS trusts where they do not already exist due to the nature of the structured role orientated buy off scale and the ossified nature of the NHS. This would be further compounded by the unionised nature of the NHS, with the unions analogously to resist any move from collectivism to individualism in discussions about pay and contract conditions.Recommendations at the end of the report include analyzeation to the design of the scheme and how crucial this potful be to the schemes future success the need to manage PRP openly to prevent breakdown of relationships and thus prevent negative impacts on executing overall and the importance of clear management of objectives by individuals best position to manage their police squads.Evaluate how the aims of the Performance Related Payment scheme argon underpinned by theoryThe initial concept of performance related pay (PRP) schemes were introduced as a substance to reward employees for completing a specific goal. The sense of reward was expect to act as a mot ivator and so the scheme was embraced with high expectations (Daniels, Macdonald, 2005183).Assessment of organisational reward applications shows that performance is not the only modality employees relate to being congratulated on doing a ponder well. However, it is suggested the benefit of utilize performance establish reward systems has been in the applying of the statistical elements of the method, allowing for a clear and relatively objective convey of performance legal communityment. (Shields, 2007410/11). This suggests that organisations favour a method which provides a supportive conclusion with quantative evidence to back up decisions made that may favour i individual over another.Secondly the use of PRP schemes have been think to wider business strategic plans which have sought to align the employees objectives with the wider goals of the organisation (Holbeche, 2009219). However, performance base reward schemes have been criticised in recent years, despite becomin g seen as the norm deep down organisational structures (Holbeche, 2009219).Alternative applications abide be rewarded through behavioral analysis in line with a set of parameters and goals. However, this method of reward has been argued as being subjective and open to abuse and interpretation (Shields, 2007410/11). As such the use of performance management against tangible goals as a measure provides something concrete for the employee to be measured against which cannot be refuted (Shields, 2007411).PRP schemes can as yet be heavily criticised when there is a belief the targets are not truly achievable (Lai, Tsui, 2009116). but there is a concern that where targets are consistently not achieved and are deemed inaccurate, the effects can be rapid de penury with the hands (Lai, Tsui, 2009116).An additional aim of PRP can be the encouragement of equality and fairness, this is not that everyone should be paid the same but those that add value are rewarded appropriately in compari son to others that may not contribute to the same level.How does this theory fit into the organisations aims and objectives?The aims and objectives of the NHS centre on measureable statistics such as level of patient care, treatment times, waiting controversy turnover, number of patients seen and treated, level of discharged patients and sound fiscal management. These are rolled down from central government and managed by the individual NHS Trusts across the country.It is suggested that providing a tangible measure against which to be managed is a key element in the use of PRP at heart the NHS. The use of tangible goals nub the objectives are clear and concise (Shields, 2007410/11). furthermore the NHS argues that the use of performance measures means there is an ownership placed onto the employee to perform to their expected level and for their manager to ensure they are learning and developing (Shields, 2007410/11).The NHS has seen relative success where PRP schemes have been applied (Shields, 2007411). Under these schemes the employees use individual goal setting applications, which instead of creating conflict achieved motivation although in-depth assessment of the research found that the goal setting aspect of the measure was the most favoured element (it enabled a clear guide for the reward) the behavioural assessments were deemed subjective (Shields, 2007411).However one might argue that whilst this may work in spite of appearance a common service sector purlieu there are contrasts deep down backstage industry. The directed use of strategic alignment can pitch departments against each other creating internalised conflict (Schienmann, 2009142). Furthermore people can be encouraged to apply their focus in a directed right smart which means they stop looking at the wider picture. In doing this there is the potential to create a funnel shape and individuals end up running(a) at cross purposes instead of working together (Schienmann, 2009142).Furt hermore contrastive these statistics is the idea that public sector employees see financial reward as a secondary motivator to work harder (OECD, 200574). This is supported by research into all public sector environments, which suggests that job content and public life development are primary motivators to increase performance (OECD, 200574). This is supported with recent research into the NHS management structure. During questioning into applied PRP, 61% of the staff involved with NHS trusts operating these schemes suggested the idea of rewarding performance was divisive and undermined the overall co-operation of its staff (OECD, 200573). This was implied to be because there was a lack of team discipline and people worked as individuals. This behaviour was cited as unacceptable in spite of appearance an environment that made life and death choices based on teamwork (OECD, 200573).On the other hand the same research contradicts this idea stating that when questioned 51% of NHS ma nagers suggested that PRP schemes in their trust had resulted in employees working harder (OECD, 200574).As such one might argue that the use of performance related pay schemes only work when the individual is financially motivated, and this could be applied to all sectors, public and private. at that placefore there is an melody to suggest that although the aims of the PRP scheme may be aligned to the business strategy they will only succeed if the end goal is enough to motivate the individual. Within the NHS one would suggest there have to be additional concepts for performance management to focus on such as content, departmental resource and career development. Although the theory of PRP may be applicable, the practice does not necessarily translate into a high performing team.Critically Evaluate the Effectiveness of this SchemeOne might debate the effectiveness of the performance related pay schemes within the NHS depending on the expected outcome. It is assumed that the expec tation within employee groups from the introduction of PRP is increased team spirit and improved performance which therefore increases operational output (Lai, Tsui, 2009116).Yet it should in addition be considered that the scheme can be used as a method to employ goal setting policy within an establishment where this has not been done before. Research suggests that the introduction of PRP validates the implementation of goal setting within public sector environments regardless(prenominal) of motivational output (OECD, 200576).This could be considered a significant benefit of the application of PRP within a wider assessment of the scheme. Furthermore the implementation of PRP provides the opportunity to redefine established organisational performance norms (OECD, 200576) and allow the NHS the proceeds of being able to implement change in a structured manner.However it can also be argued that change in itself carries the potential for overall internalised threat (Huston, Marquis, 2008178). Research suggests that when not welcomed, change has the mightiness to inject conflict into the organisational structure (Huston, Marquis, 2008178). This means the focus moves away from the primary strategic aim. provided, conflict can send negativity around the workplace, ensuring non-compliance, and removing any degree of support for any performance based schemes (Huston, Marquis, 2008178). alas it would appear the scale for conflict is high within the NHS when PRP is discussed. If the trust is considered as a business organisation the application of PRP means that pay adjustments can be applied in a measured way which can therefore become a strength (OECD, 200576).However, this means the counter argument becomes a flunk from the employees perspective (OECD, 200576). As such one would argue that changing to a PRP scheme will subvert the involvement of the trade unions because the focus moves from collectivism to individualism as a discipline (Gall, 200313). This cou ld be seen as a weakness because unlike privatised industry the NHS environment is cited as being more static with less flexibility between positions and employee expectations (Gall, 200313).It is suggested that the termination of the collectivism business leader would leave NHS staff negotiating for contracts in the same way private industry do. This leaves the employees open to increased discrimination between financial rewards at the same site levels. This is seen with the introduction of flexible working hours for employees, which effectively abolishes the overtime model for staff, and the theory implies that staff would no long-lived be financially compensated for working additional hours over their standard agreed contract rate (OECD, 200576).On the other hand the introduction of flexible working is defended as necessary within advance(a) society. As such this implies that the change in financial application by moving to PRP fillips should not be seen as a weakness but a strength or opportunity to open the job market up to new applicants. Moreover research suggests that the use of performance related pay within the NHS environment provides a recruitment fillip and improves staff retention in the long term (OECD, 200576). terminate whether the scheme meets the needfully of the organisationOne might argue that the introduction of PRP to any organisation is applied to encourage fairness and equality with rewards (Redman, Wilkinson, 2009160). However criticism of PRP within the NHS organisation suggests that it does not provide fairness and equality with its rewards (Abel, Esmail, 2006). Research suggests that although PRP is adopted, there are inherent weaknesses in the application of the initiative and previous discriminations against sexual urge and ethnicity remain prevalent despite the results of performance based measures (Abel, Esmail, 2006).This is further supported with a government appraise of the NHS performance review process. This resea rch found a large number of consultants who voiced their concerns over some(prenominal) racial and gender discrimination within the PRP, however they also suggested discrimination based on their health check specialism and the degree to which the individual contributed towards management decisions existed alongside traditional discriminations (Abel, Esmail, 2006). Thus one may suggest that the performance reviews favoured those who worked in more high profile specialisms, which could provide additional funding.On the flip side of this discussion however is the consideration that those lower in the organisational structure would welcome the opportunity for performance based pay rewards in order to grow their roles and develop their careers. However this research implies their performance is isolated in comparison to that which benefits the wider business model needs.In recent research conducted in this area it was concluded that incentive polices such as PRP have provided a positiv e knock on effect where quality and gumshoe are concerned. This point is interesting as in an environment such as nursing, one would have assumed quality of care and safety are principle fundamentals of patient expectations. However performance is massively improved when the employee is offered additional reward for reaching targets in these fields (Kurtzman et al, 2011).The research however goes on to suggest that the use of incentive schemes place an increased burden and creates a blame culture for nurses without addressing the infra-structure needs that the NHS trusts require to meet the targets set for them, This shows that the adaptation of PRP can be seen as being a pronged edged sword within the NHS system (Kurtzman et al, 2011).Report ConclusionThe research appears to suggest that the performance based incentive schemes meet the base needs of the NHS as they wreak the basic principles of nursing happen in accordance with expectations. However an incentive scheme such as P RP cannot overcome the lack of adequate environment, staffing levels and low salary level. As such this implies that performance based pay does not work as a motivator for the existing workforce. Neither would one conclude that it works as a recruitment incentive as was previously suggested.Instead the implication is that the use of performance based incentive schemes means that those with power can continue to reward those they single out for success, whilst the remainder of the workplace organisation are leave to manage with inadequate environments in which to meet the targets they are given.One might determine an outcome borne from twain potential directions. In one sequel if the NHS is seen as an organisational structure and not as a public service, the use of PRP may be seen as successful. As a scheme this allows management to reward those individuals who are benefiting the NHS. From within this it can be assumed the discrimination that occurs is justified. However on the ot her side if the NHS is viewed as a public service with its key members being the front line staff, one would have to conclude that PRP does not benefit the needs of the organisation. Nursing graduates are decreasing in numbers the vocation is more and more seen as a difficult environment with insufficient financial reward and high expectations (Chitty, 200536).Following these arguments one would have to conclude that the use of a PRP scheme would provide the NHS with specific benefits when linked into an open environment which supported fairness and equality. However the current organisational structure of the NHS is not conducive to producing the environment needed to make this ideology successful. Instead work is perhaps needed with the basic infrastructure of the NHS organisation before additional performance plans will be able to achieve the required outcome for the operation.Recommendations for the management of PRP within the NHSThere are several recommendations to be made fo r the management of pay within the NHS. These are as follows invent of the schemeWhen PRP schemes are adopted, the design of them is crucial to their success and application (Redman, Wilkinson, 2009134). Not only is it necessary to consider what will work for the majority of the workforce, but it is also vital to link the work of the individual into the wider team dynamic (OECD, 200586). As such when incentive schemes are applied, the link between teamwork and the individual is necessary in order to ensure a performance measure that involves the wider strategic picture of the organisation (OECD, 200586).In the case of the NHS this would be rectified through adapting some of the schemes considered elitist and improving some of the base working conditions which affect a wider degree of the working population. One would assume this will improve morale and create a workforce that wants to achieve targets and attain performance rewards.CommunicationWhen introducing performance related id eology the implementation has to be judge and managed openly (OECD, 200586). When relationships break down internally the need for consolidated teamwork becomes harder, this affects all forms of performance (Redman, Wilkinson, 2009134). Within the NHS business model this argument is applied especially when managing trade union relationships (OECD, 200586), especially because this sector is driven by collective bargaining Furthermore this is particularly relevant because the core competencies of the roles have to be the same within the medical profession. The hierarchy has to be clearly defined by actual role competencies which enable staggered payments. hence performance based payment becomes harder to manage because each level should work at the same rate.Moreover this suggests the link between performance based pay and goal setting is vital in ensuring that employees are enabled to achieve and maintain their goals within fair and attainable means (OCED, 200587).Measurable Object ivesWithin the NHS organisational model one would assume targets for performance will centre on measureable statistics such as treatment times, waiting list turnover, number of patients seen and treated, level of discharged patients.These provide clear and measureable targets for people to meet and the measure is quantitative therefore enabling a degree of concise clarity to the measure. However research shows that providing clear statistical measures within the NHS model results in internalised pressure which manifests through the lower ranks (Kurtzman et al, 2011). Therefore one would argue this supports the need to overcompensate the basic infrastructure within the organisations, prior to implementing reward schemes for employees.Management of ObjectivesWhen applied, the goals provided must be clearly managed by team leaders within the confines of the department or ward. This means the head medical staff responsible for these staff members have to take on a level of responsibili ty for managing their team as well as coping with their medical expectations. One might argue this is especially difficult within the NHS model and compounds the issue of burden and blame as medical professionals find themselves having to become more like managers (Kurtzman et al, 2011). This is known to be a contentious argument for medical professionals who chose their roles as vocations (Kurtzman et al, 2011).Stimulate ChangeResearch suggests that performance related incentives should be used as a way to stimulate and introduce change into organisational structures (Redman, Wilkinson, 2009135). This can be achieved through challenging the status quo and looking at new ways to manage (OECD, 200589). It could therefore be supported that the introduction of performance related pay into NHS trust models is applicable. As an beholder one may assume the NHS organisational model has not particularly been challenged in decades, thus this strategy enables a fresh way of adapting new meth ods.