Wednesday, July 31, 2019

Use a Diary System

Explain the purpose of using a diary systemThe purpose of using diary system is:†¢to be organized †¢remember about meetings and important task to do †¢keeping within the time frame †¢cooperation with colleague †¢ control deadline and setting newDescribe different types of diary systems (for example paper, electronic etc) My diary system:Electronic – outlook diary system where all meeting, task can be set up, amend and send by mail to everybody, easy to control by set up reminder, showing automatically if people with who we want meet are available in specific time.Sticky notes – quick and easy to record important information for example: task to do for today, kept on the desk visible.Wall board – share for days, notes with information are sticky for adequate day and throw away as soon as been completed. Always available for all relevant people if I’m not in the office.Describe the purpose of obtaining relevant information about requ ested diary entries and changes. The purpose of obtaining relevant information about diary entries and changes is so that all relevant people are aware of what the meeting/appointment is, and where it is. So they are able to ensure that they are available and in the correct place at the correct time. You also have to make sure that any requested changes do not have a knock on effect.Describe the types of information needed for diary entriesThe type of information required would be dates and times for the entry also any information relating to the entry, for example, if it is for a meeting  the place, what it is about and request of confirmation people attending. If it was a deadline for a task it is useful to have notes about what needs to have been done so this can be checked off.Explain how to prioritise requestsIt is best to priorities requests in chronological order so that the most recent are done first and then if there are any immediate changes the relevant people can be no tified in time. Explain the purpose of prioritising requestsExplain the purpose of trying to balance the needs of all those involved The purpose of trying to balance is necessary to complied all task in time frame suitable for all involved.Explain the purpose of communicating changes to those affected It would be a futile waste of others time and resources if they proceeded with a project that was now defunct because you had not advised them this was no longer an operating practice.It is good practice and beneficial to all if you are all singing from the same song sheet and all know the correct procedures and why such procedures are in place.Explain the purpose of keeping a diary system up to date†¢keep me up date and with all important appointment †¢help me control the time frame †¢can be helpful to set up deadline for a task †¢work out which task need to be completed before other can be startedDescribe the different types of problems that may occur when new req uests are made and solutions to these problems. Late delivery of product – the most important things is for who it is?†¢For factory – try to get delivery ASAP and keep an eye of everything what is coming to do not miss delivery what we waiting for. Inform reception about this in case that delivery will come first there then inform everybody what waiting asap to avoid possible delays  in production what also can affect despatch and transport work.†¢For reload – regular or just single transport then we have to find out how big is delay and that transport can wait or other need to be organize.Explain the purpose of following security and confidentiality procedures when using a diary system To avoid provide information to nobody that shouldn’t receive what can have bad effects. To help with it I need:†¢ Not allow computer screens to be seen by unauthorized people†¢ Ensure people can't see confidential documents that aren't meant for them †¢ Log off your computer if it is unattended†¢ Use computer passNow you need to give me some examples of when you have done the following, please try and use print screens of your work to show that you have done these:Show me how you have made diary entries accurately and clearly and explain how you obtained the information to make diary entries (for example was this from a job sheet, or did you receive a phone call advising of the change etc)†¢By entering all received information – phone calls, emails, †¢By receiving appointment alerts †¢printing and sticky to the boardInformation for all:Information just for me:How do you keep the diary up to date and store it securely? (for example if you are using an electronic system this could be by having to use passwords etc for security and data protection reasons) †¢recording all information straight away in calendar instead of recording on paper what is easy to lost †¢ print or write received info rmation†¢removing or delete as soon as been completed

Tuesday, July 30, 2019

Is Being Fashionable a Sin?

â€Å"Don't Judge a book from it's cover† is a great phrase, but we do actually Judge appearance first before getting to know people. That first impression helps anywhere, and good knowledge of fashion, and being well groomed really helps. I think it was Marilyn Monroe that said, â€Å"Clothing should be tight enough to show you are a woman, but loose enough to show you are a lady†. Words to live by!! I want to tell them that being modest does NOT mean covering yourself in a shapeless denim bag of a dress that hides any last speck of femininity!It is possible to be beautiful, stylish, and modest. A move toward beautiful clothes that are modest and actually make the person look good is always needed in the fashion world. Remaining fashionable is also a status war in itself, because you can only attain the status at which you can personally afford. I find concept of something being â€Å"fashionable† quite puzzling. Why many people feel obliged to wear â€Å"fashi onable clothes†? They don't wear it because of aesthetic value – or do they?If something was fashionable last season and now it is not, does it mean that the aesthetic Judgment changed or do people recognize value in conforming to the majority? The answer is simpler than you think. â€Å"Fashion† is the effect, not the cause. Combine two separate concepts: First, that pleasure resulting from a certain aesthetic fades over time. So yes to your first question, it is the aesthetic value that changes. You can only eat ice cream so long until you get tired of eating it, even though nothing changed about the ice cream.Similarly, people get tired of seeing the same kind of clothes being worn all the time. There is a certain pleasure in novelty. Second, fashion has a social value, as well as an individual one. Socially, what people ear is a significant part of our environment, so it's more pleasing to see people well- dressed. Individually, to wear clothes that other peo ple find pleasing arouses our vanity, so we have a personal interest in pleasing our society. â€Å"Fashion† refers to this careful equilibrium between social pleasure and individual vanity.It's more of a sign claiming â€Å"I'm up to date† than any aesthetics, but being up to date is very valued by many people, even if it is about something as irrelevant as clothing and even if being up to date about irrelevant things implies an opportunity cost and earns lost opportunities to be up to date about relevant things. Subconscious thoughts are not characterized for being very deep. TOPIC: People nowadays are paying a lot of attention to fashion. Do you think this is a good thing? As a kind of art, fashion has its own values and benefits for people such as making them more beautiful.Nowadays, people are paying a lot of attention to fashion and I think this is a very good thing because of the following reasons. First, fashion makes people become more attractive. On the roads , a girl dressing in fashionable clothes always attracts more attention of people than one in outdated outfit. This is because as human beings, we all want something that is new and appealing rather than boring. And fashion, in this case, contributes a lot to the beauty of people. It makes them more pretty in apparels that are updated to the popular trends, which a number of people are interested in.Secondly, fashion indirectly builds up a healthy lifestyle. People who love fashion always want to be in the most up-to-date dress. However, these clothes are Just suitable for certain body shape, which is usually a thin one. Therefore, fashion and he love for it are encouraging more and more people to follow a healthful diet, to do exercise and to work out in order to have perfect bodies that are fitted in the clothes they like. Last but not least, fashion makes our world an interesting place to live in. If fashion did not exist, the world might be a dull place where all people wore the same things with the same color.We could never see attractive girls in fashionable clothes on the roads or youthful boy in hip hop costumes. Moreover, no fashion meaner no traditional costume, which is a unique part that differentiates each culture. Therefore, with cushion, people can enjoy a colorful world where everyone looks beautiful and attractive in their own fashion style. In short, I believe that the special attention of people to fashion is reasonable and needed to be encouraged. It is because fashion contributes a lot to better people's appearance, to create a healthy lifestyle and a colorful world.Fashion is a sword TTT can heal or destroy. Ultimately in today's age, Fashion Just destroys people's lives. Fashion as healing: As an art, fashion can bring healing and meaning to people's lives especially ones who are gifted in designing and have passion for it. As destructive. Too many to describe. Fashion sprung out from man's perversity to want to dress to impress. To dres s to look good so that who benefits? They benefit and feel better about themselves. Look presentable is the goal for most organizations but that has just set a mindset especially in work cultures where dressing good matters.It does really create stratifications and psychological stress on people to dress a certain way if not be ready to meet the Judgment or isolation in some cases. What do these benefit a person when they reflect back upon the impact of fashion in society? Not forgetting what many people above have indicated on fashion's influence on self esteem and other matters. Fashion like science gives people a reason to have a Job and to feel good about it but it may actually be one of the reasons why people began to sin and erode the societal norms and family unities.Fashion makes people liberal in whatever they want such that they don't have to care anymore bat people around. Making a statement is bold but a great way to make oneself unique and humans crave that because they need to stand out and make a marquee in the community. They want to feel significant and stand out from the crowd. I'm saying good that you stand out but if the assumptive effect of fashion leads to the detrimental destruction on human unity and communion, then fashion shall be no more than a subtle piece of timber waiting to explode in someone's lives in some form of cheat or sick way.It really matters how you dress but many people's lives have been testimonies of the human need to find acceptance and prominence in some way and fashion is really not a good way. Predictability is a fine line between looking good and attention seeking. Conclusion; Fashion destroys pulp's lives very subtly and slowly if no appropriate boundaries are observed. Any since no one can restrict anyone from wearing anything, the trend is that fashion is one factor that harms our society and its a fact that no one can refute.Fashion here refers to the general consensus that dressing encompasses in our curren t day where we dress to show rather than to be presentable. That is the case TTT MAJORITY of brands try to proliferate. Sex sells is the message of the day. Just look at most of the biggest companies and you can be sure TTT is one of their drives in the company. Inner beauty not outer fashion ‘For beautiful eyes, look for the good in others; for beautiful lips, speak only words of kindness; and for poise, walk with the knowledge that you are never alone,' is a famous quote by Audrey Hepburn.Thus it is about the inner beauty not the outer fashion. Lol, thank you can't think of anything else Self Respect has officially disappeared Women nowadays no longer dress to impress instead they dress to expose. Even though as women we may think that if we dress in a particular way, it would attract a guy we need to remember that if we respect who we are and how we portray ourselves, men will see this and respect us as well. Children as young as 12 are beginning to dress in clothes with a lot of exposure which is a sign that they are growing up.Children need to be children when they have the time and discovering and understanding grown up stuff should be left for their futures ahead. Makes people feel inadequate. Fashion is greedy and kills individuality. We are told that if you wear this or wear that, men will want you, etc. It is a load of rubbish. You can't Just wear what you want because that isn't ‘in' for that year, or month, or even week. Fashion churns out lines from every high street store in the country. Style and creativity (great things) should not be synonymous with fashion This organized fashion world however is something else.A grotesque facet of humanity and offshoot of capitalism, it commodities and homogeneous almost everything on this planet. Ultimately, in order to reproduce the same shallow, greedy hierarchy behind the the finished/contrived products mediated and presented to us. It DOES damage the planet. It DOES kill animals. It DOES caus e eating disorders. It DOES cause low self esteem. It fuels competitiveness and ignorance, and an irresponsible denial of reality. It causes us to ignore who we really are, who other people really are and values and issues which can't be turned into something sexy and desirable.It causes us to overlook the wonderful non-airbrushed world we already live in, and it also causes us to refuse to acknowledge and solve the problems that are there in it. It causes us to rule out knowing entire groups of people, adopting entire ways of thinking. It also – despite its self-proclaimed image of not doing so – continues racism and tethering. For several years I fell into the fashion trap set for all people. Lured in by the glossiness, the perfection, the sex, glamour, the manipulative language and presentation.I looked at the world through fashion's demeaning gaze and missed out on so much and hurt many people. I hurt my savings! I hurt my development! I wasted time. I hurt myself in developing an eating disorder and not embracing the absolutely wonderful person I already was. I also hurt people close to me, acquaintances, with the inherent Judgment fashion instills. I hurt people all around the world by paying attention to fashion, as fashion is a system relying on the people outside/at the bottom.I also no doubt perpetuated the harsh living standards for those at the bottom of the fashion industry making these clothes. And I damaged the planet. I don't believe that the meaner meet the ends whatsoever and if fashion was really that great it wouldn't need the billions and billions spent on constant PR & advertising. I think our society is seriously lacking in education/seriously over indoctrinated by the media now if a several million dollar ad which taps into your biological/instinctive yearnings to sell you an unrelated and inanimate object is seen s totally normal and an art form.I would also bring into question fashion houses funding of things which maint ain the hierarchy and the concept of ‘cool' and commodities ‘e. Galleries, shows, films, celebrities, buildings and why Italian fashion houses donate millions to the maintenance of crumbling Italian buildings which fuel the rest of the worlds perception of beautiful Italy etc etc I know there are other issues in play. I wrote this very quickly and it may seem reductive but I'm positive my argument is stronger than those trying to reassure themselves fashion is a necessary art form.It deviates youngsters from studies Youngsters who pay more attention to fashion are less attentive to their studies and when it comes to devoting time to their academic career, they seem to be less concerned. This very attitude and the role of fashion Magazines is harming the very basics of the student community and they start feeling that their life would reach a certain height if they involve their selves in the fashion activities. It is making people's minds more dependent on material thing s. It puts this image in your head that its all about how you look and what to wear and tepidity such as that.People are too dependent on what factories and what the government and what industries provide for them, when you can benefit you and your mind set by buying clothes that are for needs, not 50 million shirts to wear because you NEED every dang color. I understand that fashion is a way that people can express themselves, but when you take it too far and make it something you cannot live without, it shows true weakness in you AND society as a whole. Fashion rules the world. How many people do you know that don't care about the way they dress?I could count mine on one hand. People spend money they don't even have on clothes they will only wear once or twice at the most. When you spend money you don't have, your creating a problem for yourself, and others. Once you go broke, you start to have to get help from the government. The government gets it's money from the taxes and stuf f from the people who choose to spend their money the right way. Is it fair either? Fashion is harmful to society It makes you feel not K each season. So in an effort to feel K you pressure yourself to buy.It's not about creating peace or Joy in one's, but rather reinforcing you're not k unless you wear this designer or can afford this fashion. It's a waste of human resources. Displays the â€Å"perfect† image to viewers This causes them to believe in that image and strive to achieve it in order to feed their need to look beautiful. They try to follow the way that they are shown in the fashion industry which will help them to be accepted and look like the perfect beautiful woman so that they can match the society's requirements on beauty.Fashion depresses peoples freedom to be an individual Everyone here seems to be talking about clothes, but following fashion is in my mind, owing something that everyone is supposedly doing at the moment whether it be types of clothes, cars, behavior. Basically copying others Just to fit in or gain supposed social recognition. This can be harmful to a persons individuality, self esteem and general happiness if taken so far to stop people feeling they can freely be themselves. They have to follow the fashion no matter what the cost or think it's k to treat people who don't follow suit as outcasts.People are too bind to realize what fashion can do to person. I know this from experience and have watched people surfer. Fashion is killing naggers and some adults. Fashion is a waste of time. What happened to people expressing themselves? There are too many people wrapped up in what's in or getting the next best thing. Also, the so-called fashion of â€Å"hot bodies†; what the hell is up with that? I watched a friend who is so called â€Å"fat and ugly† struggle with being in style and having a body people want to see. She starved herself and made herself throw up Just to fit in.Honestly, I used to be wrapped up in fashion, but my mom made me realize that I don't need the newest things out there. I don't need make up as I used to think. My mom showed me how to express myself through everything I do. I thank her for that! I may be only 16 but I know what it used to be like. I don't care about fashion because being â€Å"in† is showing how low people can be and labeling them as trash, ugly, poor and worse. Fashion is harmful to a society and there is so much more around us. The sad thing is that most of the world is too blind to see it.People think fashion is so important because they always want to look good. Why do people always think fashion is so important? Well that is my question to you! Why is it so important? Why do you have to ooh good for people to like you? Some people in this world think that life is all about fashion! Well its not! Soot all you losers out there who think fashion is the best things in life.. Well stop thinking that. If you don't stop thinking that then you will grow up to have no friends and will have the worst life ever. So I came here to say fashion is not everything in life and it is harmful to some girls.If girls think that they will be liked if they look good then they will grow up to be lonely and have no friends. So if your one of those people think about al the other important things in life before you go to a party or get dressed up. Young girls are trying to emulate celebrities/models and can't differentiate the celebrity's â€Å"public persona† wardrobe from their everyday â€Å"at-home† wardrobe. Young girls look to celebrities and/or models when trying to figure out fashion. They see what is dished out to them from the media or from in-person events.They don't understand that much of what celebrities wear is worn specifically for the publicity. Some even for shock value Just to get into the forefront of the public eye. They see models with unrealistic body shapes and think that to be beautiful and successful they too have to be unhealthily thin. They don't know how many models are throwing up the only calories their bodies receive on a daily basis. They don't understand that celebrities that are dressing in body-hugging clothes and see-through tops are purposefully dressing that way because sex sells.Girls are so obsessed with being popular and accepted that they are trying to bypass being a girl and instead are trying to rush into being a woman. They aren't even getting the chance to figure out for themselves the stupidity of celebrities who spend a good sum of money walking in 9†³ stilettos or shoes without heels all for the sake of publicity. It is obvious that the celebrity is Just hiding behind the same insecurity that the little girls have about being accepted and loved for who they are. For the record, people with real talent do not need to hide behind the facade of fashion absurdity.At schools, girls have started to rank themselves with fashion. Girls have started to decid ed who's who by what they wear, and if one doesn't have enough money to buy a certain piece of clothing, then see it being worn around schools, than their self-esteems can be lowered to a certain degree, and can be seen as a target to bullies, making the situation worse. I feel that fashion is harmful to society, because it promotes a culture that is based solely on appearance. The fashion industry encourages an unrealistic outlook for men and women in regards to their bodies and their looks.Women and men have gone to great extremes to mold their bodies into what the fashion world has decided is â€Å"perfect†, often disregarding their health and well-being, Just to look like the air-brushed, rail-thin models that the industry has deemed beautiful. Fashion is definitely harmful to society, because it inspires people to make potentially harmful lifestyle choices. Societal problems, such as anorexia and teen violence, are exemplary as to why fashion can actually be harmful. The media pushes the idea of beauty, as it is associated with apparently emaciated super models and punks wearing baggy pants and chains.Our children try to emulate what they are seeing on television. Some restrict their eating to the point that their health suffers, and others steal and even resort to violence to obtain clothes that look like those their television heroes wear. Fashion contributes to excluding certain individuals from society by labeling them as different. Fashion meaner being able to express oneself, but when an individual does not have access to fashionable clothes for financial reasons or cultural ones, this individual is generally excluded from society.Fashion contributes in directing our attention towards appearances, and it impacts in a negative way what people think of each other. It harms the environment, it promotes low paid work, an unhealthy self-image and futility and contributes to the increase of consumerism. Most clothes are made with processes that pol lute the atmosphere and water sources, produce CO and other harmful gas, and a lot of waste. Most of the clothes are made y people who are paid around 12 cents a day and work in very poor conditions. The fashion industry employs models who are too thin and present their bodies as desirable and normal – how your body should be.And because the magazines, ads and whatnot make the clothes – and the whole industry – look so glamorous, people then feel tempted to buy more and more. This way, our society is becoming more image-centered, more futile and consuming. The fashion industry can be harmful to society, due to its unnatural display of weight requirements. In recent years, the alarming trend of fashion models' unnatural weight acquirement has directly affected our society, both as consumers and as individuals dealing with self-esteem issues that turn into dangerous health conditions.Teen and preteen girls are especially susceptible to the trends that the â€Å"h ouses of fashion† determine are â€Å"in†. Fashion is harmful to society for several reasons and it shouldn't be taken as seriously. Fashion is harmful to society because it makes people feel like they have to dress like the models and worst of all have to be the same size as the models. Children get shunned at school because of fashion and not wearing the top labels of clothing. It is unfair to Judge on fashion but that is what we do most of the time. I believe fashion is harmful to society.As the mother of a thirteen year old girl I can tell you that many things that are considered fashionable are ruining society. Whether it be the way they are wearing their clothes or what. There are also other issues that fall into this category television shows and radio. What is acceptable and what isn't? It is all a very thin line but all of it is becoming our undoing. Fashion is not harmful to society as it simply personifies freedom Fashion allows people to express themselves i n an individual way. It provides diversity in society which can only be a healthy thing.It shows that people have freedom and therefore allows them to relax and feel comfortable for who they are. Overall it makes for happier individuals which results in a more prosperous society. Fashion is the reason so many people are up to their neck in credit card debt. How many times do you go to a department store and not get asked by the cashier if you want a charge card for that store. The answer is almost never. Not only will the store charge you $100 for that pair of Sears, they will let you pay more than that if you onto want to pay for it all right now.Fashion is the biggest scam in consumer product because their products are never worth what you have to pay to be fashionable. Fashion beautifies the society There is nothing wrong with the fashion around us. Its Just our perspective that needs to looked upon and changed regarding fashion. Fashion is all around us so we can't imagine a soc iety without fashion. It would Just look like a prehistoric society without fashion. Fashion is the result of the man,s mental development, so there is nothing wrong with it.

Monday, July 29, 2019

Statistics for Business Decision Making Term Paper

Statistics for Business Decision Making - Term Paper Example Human beings make tangible decisions which dwarf all sources of competition if more and better information from statistical analysis is available. With statistical knowledge, many researchers have found that it is easier to apply them and make decisions that are satisfying and which fit different scenarios and situations. According to Winthrop, statistics are used as a standard unit which uses historical performance to come up with future targets which drive businesses (p.1). To him further, statistical analyses provide deep understanding into how different business departments (sales, human resources, stocks, marketing etc) are performing in relation to the overall goals and objectives of the business. Also, statistical analysis provides trends which form the backbone in planning purposes (p.1).Statistics are also employed in policy formulation by Governments which carry out studies from time to time to have a sound foundation of the policies and decisions made. Further, businesses use statistical data to evaluate the performance of current strategies and to come up with reliable information onto which strategies are working and which just wastes of resources. Again, new business initiatives are evaluated and changed in order to improve business performance backed by survey/feedback data from statistical marketing surveys. In addition, advertising/marketing bodies use statistics to understand different markets and customer behavior in order to formulate advertising/marketing campaigns.

Sunday, July 28, 2019

Journey of Slavery Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Journey of Slavery - Essay Example America was discovered by Spanish explorer, Columbus in the 16th century, who had developed good relations with the native Indian population. But the early 17th century saw the process of colonization by the British settlers who had brought shipload of African slaves as bonded labors to work on plantation and elsewhere. They also tried to exploit the native Americans with respect to labor and sea faring activities The indentured labor consisting of European workers, worked as bonded laborers who were freed after several years so as to payoff their passage to a new country. The slaves worked in labor intensive tobacco plantations along with Native Americans who later refused to work because they were afflicted with diseased like tuberculosis etc. which were brought by the settlers. The slave trading was started by the Portuguese in 1572 when they had gone to west Coast of Africa where the tribal wars resulted in captives Africans who were traded as slaves in the European market (Liu). The African tribes were skilled farmers who were also known for their intricate art work on metal and wood. Thus the Europeans were able to exploit their skill by buying them and using their skilled labor for free. The slaves were denied basic human dignity of good living condition and food. When new world was discovered, the slaves were transported to the new world by the whites. In the eighteenth and nineteenth century in America, the color of the skin played a major role in the social status. The whites maintained a racial divide within the society through deliberate use of powerful lobby of the whites and financial advantages that they enjoyed over their less privileged counterparts, the Native Americans. The blacks were not allowed to participate in social activities and even education was denied to them so that they would remain unequal socially and economically. Turn of the century saw the raced based

Saturday, July 27, 2019

BRIEF RESPONSES TO CLASSMATES POSTS Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

BRIEF RESPONSES TO CLASSMATES POSTS - Essay Example Unlike litigation, arbitration allows parties to agree on who would hear the case. In formal litigation, the court assigns the case to the next available adjudicator. In civil courts, the issues become a matter of public interest whereas, in arbitration/mediation, cases remain confidential. Uncertainty of litigation processes increases once the case is appealed in higher courts. In contrast, arbitration leaves fewer chances for appeal. As Dimino specified, this happens as negotiation takes place ‘without having a forced agreement’. As everyone knows, an arbitral tribunal is not bound by the regulations of civil procedures, and hence, the parties can, by their mutual agreement, vary the terms of arbitrators’ authority, fire the arbitrators, and fix the procedure if they want.   In other words, the total mechanism of arbitration is more convenient and less stressful to the parties. At this juncture it is reasonable to point out some of the disadvantages of choosin g arbitration as settlement option. Among them, lack of transiency is often pointed out by critics as the major drawback. In case the arbitration becomes biased due to the so called confidentiality, the situation can become worse as courts are less likely to review the arbitration decisions anymore. Evidently, as many of the posts here indicate, arbitration has several advantages over formal dispute resolution methods. However, an important thing to remember is that the feasibility and popularity of arbitration does not reduce the significance of litigation. Instead, arbitration is only a limb of civil system that can reduce the burden of formal courts and thus facilitate easy access to justice. Like others, Barcena also has emphasized the higher cost that can incur during litigation. Although this claim has been true so far, recent studies indicate a considerable rise in arbitration cost also, sometimes that exceeded the cost of formal litigation processes. For instance, Public Cit izen, a consumer watchdog group conducted a study which identified that â€Å"the cost of initiating an arbitration is significantly higher than the cost of filing a lawsuit: $6,650 to $11,625 to initiate a claim to arbitrate a consumer claim worth $80,000 versus $221 to file that action in a particular county court† (as cited in Nolo). Admittedly, the other view regarding the parties’ perceptions on winning the case in court reflects right observation. As the litigation processes become more extensive and complex, the scope for mediation normally increases. Jimenez’s choices of dispute resolution clause are ‘bargaining and mediation’ as they are found ‘cost-effective’. However, it seems applicable only to certain situations like in a dispute between employer and employee on salary or promotion. As Yolauri Barcena opines, â€Å"mediation could be a good possibility for non-critical disputes within co-workers†. However, there are some essential negotiation skills that managers require for aligning their workforce to achieve the organizational goals in a viable manner. Every sphere of human life is vulnerable to conflict and therefore requires ceaseless haggle and negotiation. When it is in business affairs, the negotiation process goes rather formal, and it demands outstanding skills from an individual to win the bargain. However, the parties involved must be aware of the fact that they bargain not to win but to resolve an issue. This

Audit Theory and Practice Article Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Audit Theory and Practice - Article Example This requires of the auditor to issue a 'statement of independence' containing a number of declarations such as: As per information derived from literature sources, the major criteria of a standard auditing process are: professional ethics, auditors' legal liability, audit risk, accepting the engagement and planning the audit, internal control over auditing process, audit sampling, designing substantive procedures, auditing different financial instruments and completing and reporting the audit (Cosserat, 2004, Eilifsen & Messier, 2006). Each of these core criteria will later be examined for strengthening our core argument that successful auditing can only ensue from a high degree of dissimilarity between auditors and the company being audited. The independence of auditors for various business activities has been ensured over a long period of time based on unsavoury corporate scandals such as Enron in 1997. At present, the International Federation of Accountants (IFAC) as part of its standard code of ethics (revised rules) has proposed the following structural changes in auditing activities: 1. 1. Taking a 'conceptual approach' to independence: This is an approach which reconciles any perceived threat to independence of auditors, accepts safeguards and takes appropriate steps (interventions) to eliminate threats (Liandu, 2002). 2. No one fixed set of rules: Under IFAC guidelines, it's no longer possible to allow just one set of rules for a given auditing scenario. This is because each specific scenario is now recognised for its own merit in order to generate a set of financial instruments for the auditing activity (Liandu, 2002). 3. The importance of assurance services: In addition to company data, auditors are now encouraged to increasingly rely on secondary data such as performance indicators, statistical information, market and media reports, systems and processes and compliance with regulatory guidelines (Liandu, 2002). The purpose of assurance services is to enhance the credibility of overall information at the disposal of the auditor. 4. Safeguards mechanism: The general principle is that any kind of self-interest, self-review, advocacy, familiarity and intimidation can threaten auditing independence (Liandu, 2002). A number of safeguards are hence, proposed. Regulatory enforcement of independence requirements, external review of a firm's quality control service, keeping technical data up-to-date, a corporate governance structure which provides oversight to services provided by a firm, communications about independence, rotating senior personnel and performing annual review of the auditing exercise (Liandu, 2002). With regard to Cosserat (2004) core criteria of auditing

Friday, July 26, 2019

Online learning of Arabic language Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3000 words

Online learning of Arabic language - Essay Example A review of relevant literature related to the problem area to identify various tools and methods that were used follows. This equips the developer with various methodologies to choose from for use in the project. A methodologies section follows suit to explain how waterfall methodologies is instrumental to the realisation of the project goals. At the end of this report, useful recommendations from the whole research are made to ensure smooth creation of the project. ... This has amplified the demand for people to learn and know other languages that they never knew from the start. In the past years, there has been an increase in the number of individuals engrossed in the knowledge of Arabic language. This can be pointed towards the increased trade between the western world and the Middle East. Many English speaking populace would like to know Arabic and communicate with the people from the Middle East effectively (Gleick, 1992). This is a project report absorbed on the online language learning project that I would like to create. I would like to build an online language learning website that would provide various English users with the essential tools for learning Arabic. However to start this project, a lot of literature on the issue is necessary to ensure that there is a correct understanding of the subject area. To start the project, it is necessary to follow all the steps in the system development life cycle. First of all, it was necessary to fir st start with the requirements analysis. During the analysis stage, several online language learning websites were used to know the user requirements necessary for the completion of the project. Searching for related literature to the subject was done through the use of Google search engine. The search was a success and yielded many literature related to the subject. However, only 10 of the literature which comprised mainly of peer reviewed articles were used. The articles were chosen based on their relevance to the topic of discussion and how effective they were to the realisation of the final project. To know the best methodologies to use in the report, it was necessary to look at all the methodologies that were available for use and choose the most

Thursday, July 25, 2019

Persistent Online Games Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Persistent Online Games - Essay Example Online gaming can involve both technological and social risks, which may cause harm to the subscribers by expending cost as well as time. Various online gaming hazards are related to the computer users, but the users are not aware about the harms caused to the computer. Online gaming raises technological risks such as ‘malicious software’, ‘viruses and worms’, ‘insecure game coding’ and ‘insecure games servers’ among others. In addition, online gaming raises social issues that include ‘identity theft’, ‘virtual mugging’ ‘cyber prostitution’, ‘social engineering’ and ‘virtual sweatshop’ among others (Hayes, 2008). The designers should give some support to the people by the help of general security practices and by gaming specific security practices. The moral responsibility of designers is to ensure the security in terms of privacy and traffic safety. Additionally, the designers are required to ascertain that online gaming violence is not involved in the games. However, the social risks as witnessed by users depend on individual grounds, as playing online games is based on their perceptions and actions (Hayes, 2008; Sicart, 2005). From the above discussion, it can be comprehended that online gaming is popular amid youths. Online gaming is also identified to cause certain harm to the subscribers in relation to technological and social risks. It has been recognized that subscribers have certain moral responsibilities in terms of maintaining privacy and minimizing violence. On social grounds, the users are accountable for their individual responsibility considering health and social

Wednesday, July 24, 2019

Write an essay in which you agree or disagree with the author's

Write an in which you agree or disagree with the author's position. Use your own ideas and experiences - Essay Example e facts in the article, it is absolutely necessary to put a muzzle on credit card companies that give away free gifts to lure young students into â€Å"plastic bondage†. Credit card marketing in colleges needs restrictions The first reason I agree with the writer’s idea that students don’t need extra credit is that the data shows that there are only 21% people (students) that pay their credit payment each month and only 11% pay even less than the minimum payment. The rest of the student lot (including 11%) rolls over their debt to next month and that’s what puts a big smile on credit card companies. That is exactly what they want to see, credit being rolled over swelling up into more credit. It is no surprise that financial analysts call accumulating debt or credit the eighth wonder of the world. The debt just keeps building up and the credit card holder becomes a financial slave to the credit card company. The second aspect of the article that makes me agree with the writer is the probe that why credit card companies that set up their tables and their ‘poison lemon stands’ in colleges always give away gifts for signing up for a credit card not a debit card. It is obvious that they will get their spending on the gifts back with interests later on. It is hard to imagine that all people holding credit cards would be paying their minimum credit payments regularly, it is simply impossible, that is why credit card companies are ready with their big open mouths waiting for this to happen and they could feed off of the credit chunks. Compare the credit card to debit card, there is no difference in spending principle, the only difference comes when it’s time to pay off. For a debit card, one has to have that amount of money in the bank account thus he can’t in any case spend more than he can afford. On the other hand, it is the credit card that begs the credit card holder to spend more than he can afford. This is where banks cash in tons of money. Once the

Tuesday, July 23, 2019

Case Analysis on Product Design or Process Design Term Paper

Case Analysis on Product Design or Process Design - Term Paper Example In order to understand better product design, this essay, will be looking at the case analysis of product design at the shipper manufacturing company. Company Overview The Shipper Manufacturing Company started in the aerospace business in the 1960s. In the early years, the company developed and produced the Echo weather satellites, which were launched into space. More recently, the Shipper manufacturing company had diversified into three divisions a) the materials division b) electrical products c) advanced products division, located in Faribault, Minnesota. Over the years the advanced products division has not been consistent with sales and profits as a result of this the divisions corporate strategy was changed. The Advanced product division manufactured the company’s specialty products for custom orders such as helicopter blade liners and mine stoppers. To produce these, the APD relies on the Materials Division production of laminate plastic materials. The Electrical Produc ts Division is responsible for producing the circuit boards and other electrical products. The company focuses on providing low volume specialty products to individual short run customers assuring the quality of their products. Strengths According to scholars (Ayres, 1984), in an industrial nation’s economic future may lie in the so called flexible systems of production, technically advanced and skill intensive industries which make customized products. In order to exhibit its strengths the company has to consider criteria’s such as its competitive strengths and its innovative aspects. The Shipper manufacturing company being based in the United States has an advantage to be in the centre of technology with a higher access to information technology systems that could ease its product design without compromising the customer’s demands. It should also respond to individual customer design demands and adapt new products to the unique requests of the customers; this has been something the shipper manufacturing company has done without equal whilst maintaining high quality standards. Weaknesses The manual system used at the Shipper manufacturing company incorporate the human component. Frequently, this human component may lead to a muddle or inefficiency mostly caused by delays in production due to negligence or an operative’s error. In addition a manual system of record keeping is used, these records are not transparent and no backups are available in case of an emergency. Opportunities The Shipper manufacturing company will restrict its market development resources to certain market divisions of growth and to shrewd industries where there is a realistic opportunity and presumption of inhabiting a presiding or strong competitive position Threat In measuring threats, the change in business strategy will require a corresponding change in manufacturing strategy. The business unit is growth oriented with substantial resources directed to new product or new market strategies, making it a medium-to high-risk operation. Recommendation Voice of the customer exercise - The Shipper manufacturing company should hold this exercise to brainstorm and communicate external and internal demands and expectations by customers. In addition the company should ensure that its customers are satisfied. This can be achieved by quality function deployment, define by Akao (1990) as the specific method for ensuring quality thought out at each juncture of product development process. The author claims that the use of quality function

Monday, July 22, 2019

Importance of Literature Essay Example for Free

Importance of Literature Essay 1 Introduction In this article we will talk about the importance of literature reviews as a way of summarsing the state of the art of a field. We will examine ways of constructing literature reviews and we will see in the links provided examples of literature reviews. 2 Definition of literature review A critical summary and an assessment of the current state of knowledge or current state of the art in a particular field. The ability to carry out a literature review is an important skill for any student. It will provide you with a context in which to place your assignments regardless of the module you are studying. Practically any assignment in any module you take will involve reading what other people have written on the subject of your assignment, gathering information to refute or support specific arguments, and writing about yourfindings. For small scale projects, (like module assignments), you will not be expected to provide a definitive account of the state of research in your selected topic. You will be required to provide evidence that you have read a certain amount of relevant literature in the topic, that you have understood that literature, and that you can summarize the material you have read in a coherent way. The literature review is precisely that summary. In order to do a literature review you will need to spend time reading the literature relevant to the topic you are researching. Understanding the literature in your research topic will prevent you from repeating previous errors, or redoing work which has already been done. It will also give you insights into aspects of your topic which might be worthy of exploration and future research. 3 Purpose of a Literature Review There are several purposes to writing a literature review. To provide the reader with an up to date account and discussion of the research findings in a particular topic. This might sound pretty esoteric but you will find that in writing a literature review you will learn about the ways other people have constructed their own research projects. Seeing what others have done might help you understand your own assignment. You might be able to see the methods that other more experienced researchers have used and you might decide to follow on their footsteps and copy their methodological approach. You might also be able to detect conflicting points of view expressed by different authors. These conflicting points of view might be the indicators of diverging theories within the same topic. You need to be aware of these conflicting theories as well as of the arguments supporting these theories in order for you to assess their value and make up your own mind on the topic. Being aware of the theories will help you later in your life as a student when you will have to design a larger research project like your dissertation. You might also be able to discuss relevant research carried out in the same topic. It is important to be able to discuss relevant research because very often it is very difficult (as students and as researchers) to keep abreast of everything that is published every year in a topic. The job of the writer of the literature review is to summarize and discuss the major documents published in that topic over a stated period of time. The discussion will take into account the methods and the results or findings of the most relevant research. The reviewer will assess whether the methodology is appropriate and whether the results seem valid. The reviewer therefore evaluates the quality of the research as opposed to merely listing documents. The reviewer may also discuss material published in other fields which are related to the main topic. This process is very important since very often research in the social sciences is multidisciplinary, i. e. knowledge gets generated from many disciplines and needs to be integrated. For example in order to be able to research and write a literature review on a question like ‘Why do teenagers smoke? ‘ The reviewer might need to read material from journals in psychology, medicine, and sociology. 4 Mechanics of Writing a Literature Review You need to read. You need to read because it will give you ideas, and because it might improve your writing style. You need to develop some basic reading strategies. You need to decide: †¢ where to read †¢ what to read †¢ whom to read †¢ how to find what you need to read. Your University or College library might be your first port of call in deciding where to read, but as you progress in your course you might need to read in other libraries. You might also chose to photocopy material from these libraries and read it at home. The advantage of using photocopies is that you can underline the material and make notes. The question of what to read is more tricky. Books, journals, reports, popular media, computer-based material, internal reports, letters, conference proceedings etc. You will probably need to read all these when you are constructing a literature review. When you try to determine whom to read you need to be aware that anyone can be mistaken in their interpretations or their opinions. It is therefore important that you can be able to ascertain how authoritative is the person that you are reading. You should also be able to ascertain their motivation in writing. This might help you determine if the person has a biased perspective on an issue. You should be guided on what to read (at least as a starting point ) by your module coordinator(s) and seminar tutors however, that is only initial guidance, after that you should be capable of finding your own material. Once you have set-up your basic reading strategies, you will need to be able to understand what you read. This is slightly more complicated than it seems because you will need to be able to develop tricks to scan a lot of documents very fast, and decide if a particular document is good enough to merit careful reading. It takes practice to be able to look at a document in the library and determine if it is good enough for you to spend serious time reading it. Have a look at the table of contents and index of the book. Look at the introduction and concluding chapter . Scan some of the topics from the index and determine if the material is adequate. These hints will give you a superficial knowledge about the content of a document, however you will not be able to write a literature review based on superficial knowledge. You will have to read enough to know enough about what has been written and summarize it in an intelligent fashion. In other words, you need to know enough to be able to be critical about it. Once you select a document for serious reading, you will need to summarize and criticize it.

The ways in which the character of Macbeth and Lady Macbeth are revealed through the time Essay Example for Free

The ways in which the character of Macbeth and Lady Macbeth are revealed through the time Essay Describe and illustrate the ways in which the character of Macbeth and Lady Macbeth are revealed from the time that Lady Macbeth receives her husbands letter in Act I, up to the murder of Duncan, paying attention to the differences between them. Critics have often referred to the character of Macbeth in the play Macbeth, by William Shakespeare, as a tragic hero and a man who is, except for his ambition, noble in nature. This noble nature is brought out in his moral sense of duties and loyalty to the king. The audience/reader learns of his brave and valiant position as a soldier, particularly valuable on the battlefield from the beginning, and his nobility enables him to resist his murderous thoughts and leave what will be to fate. On the other hand, Lady Macbeth scorns this aspect of her husbands nature for she sees his human kindness as a weakness (which makes him less manly) and even fears this characteristic of his, because she is concerned that he will not be man enough to perform the deed of killing a good, kind and respected King. Therefore, with this section of the play, what constitutes a man and woman differs from Lady Macbeth and Macbeth. Also, the reader must take into consideration that the Elizabethans believed that to kill a king, especially a greatly praised one, was the most evil crime that could ever be committed, for the king was said to be Gods representative on Earth, hence this horrid deed would be seen as a crime against general good and heaven. Lady Macbeth does not seem to be associated with this theory for she has a willingness to commit evil. This aspect of her character is particularly evident after she has read her husbands letter, when she cries unsex me here declares that she wants to loose all her femininity and calls upon the evil spirits to make thick my blood with direst cruelty. This deals with the theme in the beginning of the play of the roles of both sexes, because women, in the Elizabethan times, were sees as, or supposed to be, pure and innocent, which makes Lady Macbeths character unique. Also, the language that Shakespeare uses here emphasizes how Lady Macbeth lacks in morality compared to Macbeth. Words such as blood, demonstrates her scheming wickedness, but also how she would willingly sacrifice her own soul to the devil in the dunnest smoke of hell (for during the Shakespearian time, heaven and hell were very prominent in peoples beliefs). In fact, the way that Lady Macbeth calls upon the evil spirits shows a sense of power and control, whereas Macbeth is, to some extent, more susceptible to the evil spirits and how he is easily influenced and impressionable of them. What is very interesting to notice is how Shakespeare subtly links Lady Macbeths and Macbeths attitude to the witches and the evil spirits. From the first meeting with the witches, Macbeth is instantly affected by them, as commented upon by Banquo: Why do you start, and seem to fear This gives the audience a sort of clue to Macbeths susceptibility to the supernatural, as reiterated in his letter to his wife when he declares that he stood rapt in the wonder of it. The letter is relevant, because it is key to what Macbeth was thinking during his encounter with the witches and provides extra information to the audience of what he felt at that time. Also, the word rapt emphasizes how Macbeth feels as though he is surrounded now by the prophesies and the audience knows as the play proceeds, Macbeth relies more and more on the fallibility of the witches and the prophesy of his kingship and how that is all that he thinks about. This certain susceptibility is particularly noticeable, when he is hallucinating of the fatal vision of the dagger, which portrays how much the supernatural occupies his mind. He had already begun the path of destruction and self destruction, when he uttered the word murder, and it is upon this meeting with witchcraft that this idea entered his mind. Macbeth allows the witches to influence his thoughts and actions, and this demonstrates his moral weakness. Therefore, Macbeth is rather superstitious regarding his attitude towards the prophesies (which reflects the purpose of the play, because King James I was extremely interested in the subject) and can be easily wavered by the witches, as opposed to Lady Macbeths uncompromising will, and, unlike her husband, the idea of murder remains fixed in her mind. She is not necessarily influenced by anything once it is there, she is determined to make it happen rather than leave it to fate. In fact, it can be argued that once Lady Macbeth has read the letter from Macbeth, and hence the idea of murder, the evil in her subconscious has been brought forth. She perceives the witches in a rather lighter hearted manner than her husband for she believes in giving fate and metaphysical aid a helping hand in order to have thee crownd withal. Perhaps it could be considered that the animal imagery, which Shakespeare often uses in Lady Macbeths speech, such as the raven and the serpent shows how Lady Macbeth would more likely disturb fate and bring about natures mischief, than her husband, for in Shakespeares plays, animals were used, because they disturb fate and therefore are often quite symbolic within the plot. The two Macbeths reactions to the murder are also very contrasting from each other and this contrast in significant to their character analysis. Macbeth realizes the enormity of this offence immediately. this my hand will rather the multitudinous seas incarnadine, making the green one red. Macbeth is aware that no matter how much he washes his hands from Duncans murder, the sin will never be cleansed. This fits in with the religious aspect of the play, because there is a lot of emphasis on good versus evil and the washing away his sins is an example of this. Also, due to his vaulting ambition, he is filled with remorse, and left with guilt conscience knowing that he will sleep no more. The language that Shakespeare presents is particularly important for it shows how much it has wounded Macbeths conscience, for such hyperboles as multitudinous and incarnadine impress the audience for they sound magnificently cast and thus portray how much this ill affect the once valiant Macbeth. The way that Shakespeare follows this with short simpler words also adds emphasis on the previous Latin expressions. Another insight into how Macbeth feels about the murder is when he tells Lady Macbeth about how he could not say Amen after Donalbain and his wife say their prayers. This again torments Macbeth as he struggles with the strain of his conscience and it is this spiritual conflict in the inner character that is Macbeths tragedy. In fact, it is his conscience that Shakespeare enables the audience to relate with, and the fact that Macbeth knows that he has performed wrong and the audience is aware that he once was, adds to their sympathy for him throughout the play. However, Lady Macbeth fails to appreciate what murder means, its consequences, the severances of it and does not posses such conscience as her husband. This can be seen in how after Duncans murder, Macbeth uses more flowery language, whereas Lady Macbeths language is a lot more straight forward and practical, which fits in with theme of the sexes and how Shakespeare stresses that their roles have changed. Macbeth: Balm of hurt minds, great natures second course, chief nourisher in lifes feast. Lady Macbeth: You do unbend your noble strength, to think so brainsickly of things. The main difference between their speech in this section of the play (Act 2, Scene 2) is how Shakespeare makes Macbeths language have more imagery, personification and metaphors, contrasting to Lady Macbeths, which is practical and straightforward, reflecting her lack of guilt. The play Macbeth is not only unique to other Shakespeares works, but also in the Elizabethan period. What characterizes the plays uniqueness is how the supposed villain is also the protagonist of the play as well. The two main characters, Macbeth and Lady Macbeth are actually the antagonist, but also the centre. Therefore, Macbeth is a play that harbours sympathy for evilness unlike any other, in a way, almost justifying it. This is also very effective of the part of Shakespeare, because it makes the plot more complex, interesting and mind-boggling than any other traditional play or story where it is the main characters representing good and fighting the evil. In this theatrical piece, it is the main characters that are the ones fighting and coping with the inner evil within themselves.

Sunday, July 21, 2019

Goals Systems Theory: Overview

Goals Systems Theory: Overview Jenna Lyles Section B 1. Equifinality: To understand the system property of Equifinality is to understand the old adage â€Å"There’s more than one way to skin a cat.† This means that ultimately the guarantee of success is not reliant on taking/completing any singular path, procedure, or means of fulfilling a system goal. No one way is the only way, as there are multiple ways in which an organization can reach its goal(s). Equifinality Example: This can be exemplified in the University of Central Florida’s attempt to garner more football game attendance. Initially the university promised large amounts of Link Loot. 1,000 Link Loot points if you come out to the UCF game! (The campaign sought to boost school spirit and morale. I mean, where else do you fully immerse yourself in the college experience if not at your university’s football games?) This attempt was successful, primarily amongst freshman, to whom the idea of Link Look seemed especially promising (it doesn’t fully hit you how broke you are until you’re sitting in your freshman community dorm eating a 38-cent cup of Ramen) because it promoted the chance at winning a scholarship. Game attendance did indeed rise, but then, UCF implemented a new tactic. UCF eventually ended the Link Loot process towards the end of 2012. This posed a problem, how would UCF keep attendance at a high? They university had to think of anothe r way—take another route—to ensure game attendance stay peaked. Well they found one indeed. When UCF started winning its football games we all noticed how much the advertising and broadcasting of our commendable record all over campus shot up. It seemed everywhere you turned our undefeated record was thrown in your face. Naturally, people that lacked school spirit or any interest in showing up at the game only to watch UCF get stomped, picked up. Attendance reached an through the roof again because of UCF’s steady effort to get the word out that the University of Central Florida meant business on the field this year. Thus, we have two different means of garnering football game attendance that were able to work interchangeably. The variety used meet the system goal (high football game attendance) stemmed from two different changes which yielded the same result. 2. Multifinality: Multifinality is the system property that can best be epitomized in â€Å"the pursuit of multiple goals by means of a single activity (Shah et al., 2002). Essentially, it is the notion that one act has the power to spawn multiple reactions. Multifinality is preferable to causes which produce one effect as multifinality is the equivalent of getting an exceptional bang for a regular buck, so to speak. Multifinality Example: At Oakleaf High School when one class ends a bell sounds signaling that students are to proceed to their next class a minute before the tardy bell (which declares them late if they have not reached their next destination) sounds a â€Å"warning bell† sounds. This let’s students know that they have approximately 60 seconds to get to their next class. To say that the halls of Oakleaf High School remained, until the shrill of that warning bell blasted, packed, was an understatement. To reduce the socializing that took place in between classes (that which our three vice principals thought aided tardiness) our principal (Mr. Broski) did away with the warning bell. The first week of the new policy showed promising results in more regions than one: tardiness was at a low, there were less accidents on the stairs (since people were not flying down them, racing to class), and the hallways were finally navigable! In this way Oakleaf High School (the system) killed not two, but three birds with one stone! The stone, or goal in this case, being the pursuit of reducing socializing in between classes. 3. Negative Entropy: Negative entropy is the system property by which a system is able to preserve itself and additionally promote the system’s growth. The notion of negative entropy extensively harps on the significance of a system engaging in necessary exchangesnecessary in that these exchanges permit system survival and success with its environment. In this way, negative entropy suggests that a system’s exhibits a definite dependence on a circulation of information/components shared between it and its environment. Negative Entropy Example: An example of multifinality can be found in the closing-down of Blockbusters nation-wide. Blockbuster was a booming movie and game rental business, before entertainment conveniences like Netflix arrived on the scene. Blockbuster remained closed to its environment in that by the time it considered incorporating methods liken to Netflix and OnDemand (online access to entertainment, mail services, etc.) it was too late and they had suffered irrecoverable blows to their revenue. Ultimately Blockbuster would go out of business, shutting down all of their corporate-owned stores. The CEO’s of Blockbuster primarily owe their failure to a stinted interaction with their environment. The failure to see and adjust to the world of entertainment around them, especially methods of renting/viewing entertainment from the convenience of your home, delineates how they ignored the very environment responsible for their system’s (Blockbuster’s) viability. An argument can definitely be made that the company might have otherwise avoided deterioration if they had maintained an ebb and flow of information between themselves and the progressing environment around them. 4. Requisite Variety: Requisite variety is another system property in which the imperativeness of the relationship between a system and its environment is addressed. Requisite variety is, in itself, self-explanatory. Put a simple â€Å"of† in the middle of requisite and variety and you end up with a concise explanation of the notion: requisite of variety. Meaning, the variety within a system (its inner workings, fundamentals, mechanics, etc.) imposes the requisition that the system’s environment be composed of a liken variety. Basically, the environment of a system should match the system’s innards itself, with regard to complication and diversity (for evolution and survival). Why is this necessary? A system that is ill-equipped to handle/adapt to the intricacies of its environment will be overrun with complication and falter. Requisite Variety Example: The easiest way for me to apply this property is to think about instances in which I (the system) have felt overwhelmed and unable to adapt to the intricacies of the situation around me (the environment). A year ago I was my neighbor’s go-to babysitter. She had the kindest, most docile baby boy: Ethan. He was no problem to babysit; easy to entertain, not a picky-eater, and knocked right out after a bedtime story or two. My means of handling him were ingrained and perfected, and so when Barbara (my neighbor) asked if would mind looking after Mateo and Carlos (Ethan’s cousins) I told her that would be no problem. Unbeknownst to me, Mateo and Carlos were far from the little angel that Ethan was. Mateo was lactose intolerant and Carlos had ADHD which was in full-throttle come 8 o’clock. On top of all of this, Barbara requested I watch the boys at their (Mateo and Carlos’s) house because Ethan was spending the night there. I found mys elf unprepared to surmount the obstacles my environment had set in my path; the change in house layout made it impossible to find simple items, I couldn’t find anything (nutritious, anyway) to feed Mateo, Carlos had Ethan on the brink of tears because he was tired and agitated and Carlos kept messing with him, and all three of them seemed unresponsive to my suggestion that everybody go to bed. The end-result was me calling Barbara to admit defeat and ask that she come back home. Thus we have I, the system, was not unable to keep up with the diversity and complications that my environment imposed. This resulted in system failure, as requisite variety confirms it will. References J.Y. Shah, A. Fishbach, R. Friedman, W. Chun, and D. Sleeth-Keppler (2002), â€Å"A Theory of  Goals Systems,† in Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, Vol. 34, M.P. Zanna,  ed. New York: Academic Press, 331–78.

Saturday, July 20, 2019

Forget My Face :: essays research papers

Forget my face. I belong in London. Forget my name and take this as goodbye. No, I will not put a fight, my will for living has died. I've been living a lie. I am a lie. I'm trite and cheap. I have five dollars and a couple coins with me. If I continue living a lie, then I might as well be paralyzed. Lies are truths never born. So when I board the plane take it as my rebirth. A twelve hour flight in the womb over lonely seas and if by chance this plane was to go down I'd curl up in my polyester seat and turn as white as a premature baby. But if luck goes my way I'll be delivered safely into England as healthy as a new born baby boy. The airport's bustling and my feet are moving faster than I'm thinking. Through heavy metal doors I step into the streets slick with rain. As I smell the cool air, my lungs transpire London. With each sense intruiged I'm reborn and anxious for what comes next. I'm as healthy as I've ever been, I'm alive as Las Vegas night-life and it's only ten AM. Alone I walk down a road with green scenery. A sky so plain and trees so green. Arriving at the house I took for rent I've realized I'll never miss my bed. Too many nights it's caught my tears and it's caving in from memories of you and me. A new bed will provide new comfort in a new city I'd like to call my home. Out in town I'm not a forienger, I'm like a local and I'm more light hearted than I've ever felt. It's been six months and I've seen Big Ben and I sat upon the London Eye where I met this beautiful boy. He was gentle as he told me his name and he took a seat next to me. On our 4th time revolving over the sea he'd asked me out for coffee. This boy was clever. As we reached our 3rd cup of coffee we sat and learned about eachother. As time when on each coffee kept us awake and we sat until the early morning talking about English history. The Virgin Queen was recognized and pilgrimage was condoned. We went through all of Shakespeares plays and recited our favorite lines.

Friday, July 19, 2019

If Animals Were Human :: Pets Love Family Essays

If Animals Were Human Going home on the weekends, automatically the family is happy you’re home, having been gone for so long. Mom is prepared to fix a hot, home cooked meal, dad has a project for you and him ready to go, and the sister is anxious to tell you about her life in high school and get her big sibling’s advice. The one who is often forgotten is the dog. The most faithful one, who is most anxious to see you, stands in the yard jumping up and down, barking, and running, starving for attention. He is forgotten in the sense that you notice him when he barks, when he nudges your hand to be pet, or doing something too distracting or agitating. Even then, he is let outside when he barks, he gets pet for a little while when he nudges your hand, only until you become bored with him, and when he becomes a distraction he is told to go away and lie down. When the dog experiences these things, the dog constructs feelings within him. Of course, the dog has feelings, but it’s never taken into consideration how deep they are. This notion is presented in the excerpt, â€Å"Am I Blue?† by Alice Walker. (Forest of Voices) In the beginning, she rents a house, which has neighbors within the view of her front windows. The neighbors have a beautiful horse in the meadow behind the house and Alice watches, during the day, this beautiful creature they call, Blue. She notices that the children there pay little attention to the horse, riding him hard for 15 minutes or so and then simply becoming bored and going back into their house to disappear for another month or so. Alice goes to see the horse and befriends it by feeding it apples. At first he liked the apples because it was a good treat while the grass was becoming dry because of the season. Then the horse came to expect the apples. Blue would wait by the fence, signaling by stomping or whinnying, for someone to come and give him an apple. All the while, when she was feeding Blue the apples she was befriending the horse. Not only did the horse like the apples, but also he liked the attention, which is sometimes hard to comprehend when you think of

Evaluating the Main Theories of Counseling Essay -- Counseling/Therapy

This essay will attempt to highlight and evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of the three main theories of counselling within the module covered this term. The three approaches in discussion are psychodynamics, cognitive behavioural and humanistic. The psychodynamic theory originated from Sigmund Freud, a medical doctor and philosopher (1856 - 1939) founded in the 1900s. Freud developed his ideas whilst working as a psychiatrist in Vienna, collecting information from his patients such as feelings, thoughts and early childhood experiences. The psychodynamic theory focuses on the unconscious mind. Freud’s credence is that different mental forces operate in the mind. The unconscious mind can be described as being like an iceberg. The tip of the iceberg represents the part of the mind that is conscious, everyday thoughts. The iceberg just below the water’s surface represents the pre conscious, thoughts and information that can be retrieved easily. And finally the base of the iceberg is the unconscious part of the mind where fears, traumas and bad experiences are contained, almost impossible to retrieve. Freud argued that slips of the tongue are repressed expressions made by the person unknowingly. The term used for this is a Freudian slip. Freud emphasized that early childhood experiences are important to the development of the adult personality, proposing that childhood development took place over five stages; oral, anal. Phallic, latent and genital. The phallic stage is the most important stage which contains the Oedipus complex. This is where the child (age 4 - 6 yrs) posses the opposite sex parent and wants rid of the same sex parent. Freud argued that if the conflict is not resolved in childhood then it could cause ... ... objectively discoverable facts. This essay has discussed the three main approaches in counselling, looking at both strengths and weaknesses of each. It is evident that every theory is embedded in historical and cultural issues. Although the three approaches have the same initial focus, to enable clients to make conscious their personal meanings and bring them into a place of awareness. It is clear that there is no right or wrong approach, each has contributed to science and society. Works Cited PENNINGTON, D ( 2002) , Introducing Psychology: Approaches, Topics and Methods MALAN, H, D, ( 1979 ) , Individual Psychotherapy and the science of Psychodynamics, Oxford GROSS, R, ( 2005 ), Psychology, The science of mind and behaviour, London. Piotrowski, NA 2005, Psychology Basics, Salem Press, eBook Collection, EBSCOhost, viewed 25 August 2011.

Thursday, July 18, 2019

Metals are electropositive chemical elements

Metals are electropositive chemical elements that are characterised by the following qualities: ductility, malleability, luster, opacity, and conductance of heat and electricity. They can replace the hydrogen of an acid and form bases with hydroxyl radicals. Density is defined as a material's mass divided by its volume. Metals typically have relatively high densities, particularly when compared to polymers. Often, materials with high densities contain atoms with high atomic numbers, such as gold or lead. However, some metals such as aluminum or magnesium have low densities. These metals are useful in applications requiring other metallic properties but in which low weight is also beneficial. Fracture Toughness can be described as a material's ability to avoid fracture, especially when a flaw is introduced. Glass, for example, has low fracture toughness (although it exhibits high strength in the absence of flaws). Metals typically have high fracture toughness. Metals can generally contain nicks and dents without weakening very much. They are also impact resistant. A football player relies on this fact to ensure that his facemask won't shatter. The roll cage on a racecar, for example, is created from steel. This steel should remain intact in a crash, protecting the driver. The ability of a material to bend or deform before breaking is known as plastic deformation. Some materials are designed so that they don't deform under normal conditions. You don't want your car to lean to the east after a strong west wind, for example. However, sometimes we can take advantage of plastic deformation. The crumple zones in a car absorb energy by undergoing plastic deformation before they break. Stress takes place when forces pull (this is known as tension), push (compression) or act in combination on a material. Once the force is applied, the material responds by distorting, counterbalancing the force. With a larger force, there will be a correspondingly greater distortion until the item breaks. Stress is the force applied per unit of cross-sectional area square to the force. This can be expressed mathematically as:: Stress (s) = Force / unit of area The metric system units for stress are Newton per square meter (N/m2) and imperial system units are pounds per square inch (psi). Strain is the amount the material deforms from the unloaded state when the force is applied. Its formula is: Strain (x) = Change in length / original length Since strain is a ratio of length divided by a length, it has no units. By the formula, we can see that it represents a proportional change in size. Deformation occurs when a force is applied to a metal. The metal is therefore strained. The greater the force – the more the deformation (strain). This relationship is recognised in Hooke's Law. Hooke's Law describes an elastic region where stress and strain are proportional (a straight line on a graph). In this region the metal acts like a spring and when the load is removed the deformation (strain) reduces and it returns to its original shape. If instead the load increases, the strain (deformation) rises and the metal undergoes uniform plastic deformation. The stress-strain graph is curved in this region. Eventually, a maximum stress is reached when the metal when the material reaches its limit of necking. Necking is localized thinning that occurs during sheet metal forming prior to fracture. The onset of localized necking is dependent upon the stress state which is affected by geometric factors. Finally, past the maximum stress point, a point is reached where the metal can no longer sustain the load and it yields. The behavior of metals under load is a result of their atomic arrangement. When a material is loaded it deforms minutely in reaction to the load. The atoms in the material move closer together in compression and further apart in tension. The amount an atom moves from its neighbor is its strain. As a force is applied the atoms change a proportionate distance. This model however, does not explain why there is sudden yielding. With most modern metals yielding usually occurs at about 1% of the theoretic strength of the atomic bonds. Many materials yield at about 0.1% of the theoretic strength. Rather, metals exhibit such low strengths because of imperfect atomic structures in the crystal lattices which comprise them. A row of atoms will often stop mid crystal, creating a gap in the atomic structure. These gaps act as dislocations, which are huge stress raising points in the metal. These dislocations move when the metal is stressed. A dislocation is defined as allowing atoms to slip one at a time, making it easier to deform metals. Dislocation interactions within a metal are a primary means by which metals are deformed and strengthened. When metals deform by dislocation motion, the more barriers the dislocations meet, the stronger the metal. The presence of dislocations in metal allows deformation at low levels of stress. However, eventually so many dislocations accumulate that insufficient atoms are left to take the load. This causes the metal to yield. Plastic deformation causes the formation of more dislocations in the metal lattice. This has the potential to create a decrease in the mobility of these dislocations due to their tendency to become tangled or pinned. When plastic deformation occurs at temperatures low enough that atoms cannot rearrange, the metal can be strengthened as a result of this effect. Unfortunately, this also causes the metal to become more brittle. As a metal is used, it tends to form and grow cracks, which eventually cause it to break or fracture. Atoms of melted metal pack together to form a crystal lattice at the freezing point. As this occurs, groups of these atoms form tiny crystals. These crystals have their size increased by progressively adding atoms. The resulting solid, instead of being a single crystal, is actually many smaller crystals, called grains. These grains will then grow until they impose upon neighbouring growing crystals. The interface between the grains is called a grain boundary. Dislocations cannot easily cross grain boundaries. If a metal is heated, the grains can grow larger and the material becomes softer. Heating a metal and cooling it quickly (quenching), followed by gentle heating (tempering), results in a harder material due to the formation of many small Fe3C precipitates which block dislocations. The atomic bonding of metals also affects their properties. Metal atoms are attached to each other by strong, delocalized bonds. These bonds are formed by a cloud of valence electrons that are shared between positive metal ions (cations) in a crystal lattice. These outer valence electrons are also very mobile. This explains why electrons can conduct heat and electricity – the free electrons are easily able to transfer energy through the material. As a result, metals make good cooking pans and electrical wires. In the crystal lattice, metal atoms are packed closely together to maximize the strength of the bonds. It is also impossible to see through metals, since the valence electrons absorb any photons of light hitting the metal. Thus, no photons pass through. Alloys are compounds consisting of more than one metal. Creating alloys of metals can affect the density, strength, fracture toughness, plastic deformation, electrical conductivity and environmental degradation. As an example, adding a small amount of iron to aluminum will make it stronger. Alternatively, adding some chromium to steel will slow the rusting process, but will make it more brittle. Some alloys have a higher resistance to corrosion. Corrosion, by the way, is a major problem with most metals. It occurs due to an oxidation-reduction reaction in which metal atoms form ions causing the metal to weaken. The following technique that has been developed to combat corrosion in structural applications: sacrificial anode made of a metal with a higher oxidation potential is attached to the metal. Using this procedure, the sacrificial anode corrodes, leaving the structural part, the cathode, undamaged. Corrosion can also be resisted by the formation of a protective coating on the outside of a metal. For example, steels that contain chromium metal form a protective coating of chromium oxide. Aluminum is also exhibits corrosion resistant properties because of the formation of a strong oxide coating. The familiar green patina formed by copper is created through a reaction with sulfur and oxygen in the air. In nature, only a few pure metals are found. Most metals in nature exist as ores, which are compounds of the metal with oxygen or sulfur. The separation of the pure metal from the ore typically requires large amounts of energy as heat and/or electricity. Because of this large expenditure of energy, recycling metals is very important. Many metals have high strength, high stiffness, and have good ductility. Some metals, such as iron, cobalt and nickel are magnetic. Finally, at extremely low temperatures, some metals and intermetallic compounds become superconductors. Ceramic: Ceramic materials are inorganic, nonmetallic materials, typically oxides, nitrides, or carbides. Most ceramics are compounds between metallic and nonmetallic elements in which the interatomic bonds are either totally ionic, or predominantly ionic but having some covalent character. While many adopt crystalline structures, some form glasses. The properties of the ceramics are due to their bonding and structure. The term ceramic comes from the Greek word keramikos, which means burnt stuff! This signifies that the desirable properties of these materials are typically achieved through a high-temperature heat treatment process. This process is called firing. Ceramics are often defined to simply be any inorganic nonmetallic material. By this definition, glasses are also ceramic materials. However, some materials scientists state that a true ceramic must also be crystalline, which excludes glasses. The term â€Å"ceramic† once referred only to clay-based materials. However, new generations of ceramic materials have tremendously expanded the scope and number of possible applications, broadening the definition significantly. Many of these new materials have a major impact on our daily lives and on our society. Ceramics and glasses possess the following useful properties: high melting temperature, low density, high strength, stiffness, hardness, wear resistance, and corrosion resistance. Additionally, ceramics are often good electrical and thermal insulators. Since they are good thermal insulators, ceramics can withstand high temperatures and do not expand greatly when heated. This makes them excellent thermal barriers. The applications of this property range from lining industrial furnaces, to covering the space shuttle, shielding it from high reentry temperatures. The aforementioned glasses are transparent, amorphous ceramics which are extensively used in windows and lenses, as well as many other familiar applications. Light can induce an electrical response in some ceramics. This response is called photoconductivity. An example of photoconductivity occurs in fiber optic cable. Fiber optic cable is speedily replacing copper for communications – optical fibers can transmit more information for longer distances, and have less interference and signal loss than traditional copper wires. Ceramics are also typically strong, hard, and durable materials. As a result, they are attractive structural materials. One significant drawback to their use is their brittleness. However, this problem is being addressed by the creation of new materials such as composites. While ceramics are typically good insulators, some ceramics can actually act as superconductors. Thus, they are used in a wide range of applications. Some (the good insulators) are capacitors, others semiconductors in electronic devices. Some ceramics are piezoelectric materials, which convert mechanical pressure into an electrical signal. These are extremely useful for sensors. For superconducting ceramics, there is a strong research effort to discover new high Tc superconductors and to then develop possible applications. Processing of crystalline ceramics is based on the basic steps which have been used for ages to make clay products. The materials are first selected, then prepared, formed into a required shape, and finally sintered at high temperatures. Glasses, on the other hand, are typically processed by pouring while in a molten state. They are then worked into shape while hot, and finally cooled. There are also new methods, such as chemical vapor deposition and sol-gel processing, currently being developed. Ceramics have a wide range of applications. For example, ceramic tiles cover the space shuttle as well as our kitchen floors. Ceramic electronic devices make possible high-tech instruments for everything from medicine to entertainment. There are also some special properties which a few ceramics possess. For example, some ceramics are magnetic materials and, as mentioned above, some have piezoelectric properties. The one major drawback of ceramics and glasses is that they are brittle. As mentioned above, certain types of ceramics possess superconducting properties at extremely low temperatures. For example, there are high-temperature superconducting ceramic materials that have recently been discovered. These materials exhibit virtually no electrical resistance below 100 degrees Kelvin. Also, these materials exhibit what is known as the Meissner effect. This means that they repel magnetic flux lines, allowing a magnet to hang in the space above the superconductor. An example of special group of crystalline ceramics is the group called Perovskites. They have captured the interest of geologists due to the information they can yield about Earth's history. The most intensely studied Perovskites at the present time are those that superconduct at liquid nitrogen temperatures. Ceramics were historically used for creating pottery and artwork, largely because the brittleness and difficulty of manufacturing ceramics restricted them from other uses until recently. However, the market requirement for microelectronics and structural composite components has risen, causing the demand for ceramic materials to likewise increase. Fiber-reinforced composites, an example of a modern ceramic application, are being created from ceramic fibers with extremely high stiffness, such as graphite and aluminum oxide. Polymers: Polymers are substances which contain a large number of structural units joined by the same type of linkage. They are any of many natural and synthetic compounds, usually of high molecular weight. They typically consist of up to millions of repeated linked units, each a relatively light and simple molecule. These substances often form into a chain-like structure. Some polymers have been around since the beginning of time in the natural world. For example, starch, cellulose, and rubber all possess polymeric properties. Man-made polymers, a relatively recent development, have been studied since 1832. However, the polymer industry today has is larger than the aluminum, copper and steel industries combined. Polymers have a huge range of applications that greatly surpasses that of any other class of material available to man. Current applications include adhesives, coatings, foams, packaging materials, textile and industrial fibers, elastomers, and structural plastics. Polymers are also widely used for many composites, electronic devices, biomedical devices, optical devices, and precursors for many newly developed high-tech ceramics (such as the fiber-reinforced composite mentioned at the end of the ceramic section). The word polymer literally has the meaning â€Å"many parts.† A polymeric solid material can be considered to be one containing many chemically bonded parts or units, themselves which are bonded together to form a solid. Polymers are typically good insulators. While a large variety of polymer applications were described above, two of the most industrially important polymeric materials are plastics and elastomers. Plastics are a large and varied group of synthetic materials. They are processed by forming or molding into shape. There are many types of plastics such as polyethylene and nylon. Polymers can be separated into two different groups depending on their behaviour when heated. Polymers with linear molecules are often thermoplastic. Thermoplastic substances soften upon heating and can be remolded and recycled. They can be semi-crystalline or amorphous. The other group of polymers is the thermosets. In contast to thermoplastics, these substances do not soften under heat and pressure and cannot be remolded or recycled. Instead, they must be remachined, used as fillers, or incinerated to remove them from the environment. Thermoplastics are typically carbon-containing polymers which are synthesized by addition or condensation polymerization. This procedure forms strong covalent bonds within the chains and weaker secondary Van der Waals bonds between the chains. Normally, the secondary forces can be easily overcome by thermal energy, which makes thermoplastics moldable at high temperatures. After cooling, thermoplastics will also retain their newly reformed shape. Common applications of thermoplastics include parts for common household appliances, bottles, cable insulators, tape, blender and mixer bowls, medical syringes, mugs, textiles, packaging, and insulation. Thermosets exhibit the same Van der Waals bonds that thermoplastics do. They also have a stronger linkage to other chains. Different chains together in a thermoset material are chemically held together by strong covalent bonds. The chains may be directly bonded to each other, or alternatively may be bonded through other molecules. This â€Å"cross-linking† between the chains is what allows the material to resist softening upon heating. Thus, thermosets must be machined into a new shape if they are to be reused or they can serve as powdered fillers. However, while thermosets are difficult to reform, they have many distinct advantages in engineering design applications. These include high thermal stability and insulating properties, high rigidity and dimensional stability, resistance to creep and deformation under load, and low weight. A few common applications for thermosets include epoxies (glues), automobile body parts, adhesives for plywood and particle board, and as a matrix for composites in boat hulls and tanks. The polymer molecule, a long chain of covalent-bonded atoms, is the basic building block of a plastic. Polymers are typically carbon based and have relatively low melting points. Polymers have a very wide range of properties that enable them to be extensively used in society. Some uses include car parts, food storage, electronic packaging, optical components, and adhesives. Synthetic fabrics are essentially man-made copies of natural fabrics. Synthetic fibers do not occur in nature as themselves. They are usually derivatives of petroleum products. Examples of common synthetic fabrics are polyester, spandex, rayon, and velcro. Recent technological developments have lead to electrically conductive polymers. The behaviour of semiconductors can now be achieved with polymeric systems. For example, there are semiconducting polymers which, when sandwiched between two electrodes, can generate light of any color. This technology has the potential of leading to OLED (organic light-emitting diode) flat panel displays. This display would be light in weight, have low power consumption, and perhaps be flexible. Liquid crystals are another example of polymeric materials. As the name suggests, a liquid crystal is a state of matter intermediate between a standard liquid and a solid. Liquid crystal phases are formed from geometrically anisotropic molecules. This typically means they are cigar shaped, although other shapes are possible. The polymer molecules have a certain degree of order in a liquid crystal phase. Take the simplest case, the Nematic phase, in which the molecules generally point in the same direction but still move around with respect to one another as would be expected in a liquid. However, under the influence of an applied electric field, the alignment of the polymer molecules gives rise to light absorption. Composites: Composites are materials, usually man-made, that are a three-dimensional combination of at least two chemically distinct materials, with a distinct interface separating the components. They are created to obtain properties that cannot be achieved by any of the components acting alone. In composites, one of the materials, called the reinforcing phase, is in the form of fibers, sheets, or particles. This material is embedded in the other materials, called the matrix phase. The reinforcing material and the matrix material can be metal, ceramic, or polymer. Typically, reinforcing materials are strong with low densities while the matrix is usually a ductile, or tough, material. The purpose of the composite, when it is designed and fabricated correctly, is to combine the strength of the reinforcement with the toughness of the matrix to achieve a combination of desirable properties not available in any single conventional material. The downside is that such composites are often more expensive than conventional materials. Some examples of current applications of composites include the diesel piston, brake-shoes and pads, tires and the Beechcraft aircraft in which 100% of the structural components are composites. A structural composite often begins with lay-up of prepreg. At this point, the choice of fiber will influence the basic tensile and compressive strength and stiffness, electrical and thermal conductivity, and thermal expansion of the final pre-preg material. The cost of the composite can also be strongly influenced by the fiber selected. The resin/fiber composite's strength depends primarily on the amount, arrangement and type of fiber (or particle) reinforcement in the resin. Typically, the higher the reinforcement content, the greater the strength. There are also some cases in which glass fibers are combined with other fibers, such as carbon or aramid, to create a hybrid composite that combines the properties of more than one reinforcing material. Additionally, the composite is typically formulated with fillers and additives that change processing or performance parameters. Integrating the ceramic, metallic, plastic and semiconductor materials is a necessary requirement to the fabrication of the micro-electronics package. This is an example of a composite system whose function is to provide interface between the central IC (Integrated Chip) and the other items on, for example, a PCB (printed circuit board). Semiconductors: There is a relatively small group of elements and compounds that has an important electrical property, semi-conduction, which makes them neither good electrical conductors nor good electrical insulators. Instead, their ability to conduct electricity is intermediate. These materials are called semiconductors, and in general, they do not fit into any of the structural materials categories based on atomic bonding. For example, metals are inherently good electrical conductors. Ceramics and polymers (non-metals) are generally poor conductors but good insulators. The semiconducting elements (Si, Ge, and Sn) from column IV of the periodic table serve as a kind of boundary between metallic and nonmetallic elements. Silicon (Si) and germanium (Ge), widely used elemental semiconductors, are outstanding examples of this class of materials. These elemental semiconductors are also known as Mono Semiconductors. Binary semiconductors are formed by a compound of two elements, normally an element from group III combined with an element from group V (such as CdS), or a element from group II combined with an element from group VI (such as GaAs). Tertiary semiconductors are formed by a compound of three elements. These semiconductors are typically compounds of elements from groups I, III and VI (such as AgInS) or elements from groups II, IV and V (such as ZnGeAs). All materials have energy bands in which their electrons can exist. In metals, as stated above, the valence band is partially-filled, and the electrons can move through the material. In semiconductors, on the other hand, there is a band gap that exists, and electrons cannot jump the gap easily at low temperatures. At higher temperatures, more of the semiconductor`s electrons can jump the gap. This causes its conductivity to go up accordingly. Electrical properties can also be changed by doping This too, is one of their great assets. Putting impurities in a semiconductor material can result in two different types of electrical behaviour. These are the so-called n (negative) and p (positive) type materials. Group V elements like arsenic added to a group IV element, such as silicon or germanium, to produce n-type materials. This occurs due to the extra valence electron in group V materials. On the other hand, group III materials like boron produce the p-type because they have only three valence electrons. When n-type material is connected to a p-type material, the device then exhibits diode behaviour. In other words, current can flow in one direction across the interface but not in the other. Diodes can act as rectifiers, but they have also led to the development of the transistor. A bipolar junction transistor (BJT) is a diode with an added third material which creates a second interface. While both npn or pnp types exist, their basic operation is essentially the same as two diodes connected to each other. With proper biasing of the voltages across each diode of the device, large current amplification can be produced. Today, metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETS) have become widely used and have replaced the BJT in many applications. As a result, millions of transistors can be placed on a single silicon chip or integrated circuit. These IC chips have better reliability and consume less power than the large vacuum tube circuits of the past. The fabrication of electronic devices from the raw materials requires two major steps. The semiconductor is first melted, and a seed crystal is used to draw a large crystal of pure, solid semiconductor from the liquid. Wafers of the semiconductor are sliced and polished. Second, the circuit pattern is etched or deposited using a photolithographic process. The individual chips are finally sectioned from the initial wafer. Semiconductors experience covalent bonding. Their electrons are more tightly bound than the electrons in metals, but much more loosely bound than the electrons in insulators. The atoms in semiconductors are typically arranged in a crystal structure: a diamond-like tetrahedral (in which each atom is bonded to 4 others). Semiconductors are also typically semi-shiny. The intermediate ability of semiconductors to conduct electricity at room temperature makes them very useful for electronic applications. For example, the modern computing industry was made possible by the capability of silicon transistors to act as fast on/off switches. Electronic computing speed has greatly increased with the integrated circuit. For example, the cycle times of today's computers are now measured in nanoseconds. Opto-electronic (laser diode) research is extending the already huge rate at which information can be transmitted. Biomaterials: A biomaterial is any nondrug material that can be used to treat, enhance, or replace any tissue, organ, or function in an organism. The term biomaterial refers to a biologically derived material that is used for its structural rather than its biological properties. It also refers to any material, natural or man-made, that comprises whole or part of a living structure, or biomedical device which performs, augments, or replaces a natural function. A biomaterial can be a metal, ceramic, polymer or composite. They may be distinguished from other materials because they possess a combination of properties, including chemical, mechanical physical and biological properties, which allow them to be suitable for safe, effective and reliable use within a physiological environment. For example, collagen, the protein found in bone and connective tissues, can be used as a cosmetic ingredient. A second example is carbohydrates modified with biotechnological processes that have been used as lubricants for biomedical applications or as bulking agents in food manufacture. The performance of biomaterials depends on material properties, design, biocompatibility, surgical technique, and the health of patient. In particular, biocompatibility relies on the acceptance of the device by the body. Ideally, there should be no irritation, inflammation, or allergic response Both biomaterials and biomechanical expertise are needed to perform in vitro testing of spinal implants. Endo-vascular stents provide structural support vessels following angioplasty and other major medical procedures. After an angioplasty procedure, vessels can experience re-stenosis and eventually return to their original pre-operative diameter. In as many as 10% of the procedures, the vessels may even collapse immediately. To prevent the vessels from shrinking, endo-vascular prosthesis or stents are used. These stents are examples of biomaterials. Stents are tubular structures consisting of a spring, wire mesh or slotted tubes that are deployed inside the vessel. Depending on the design and intended use (coronary/ peripheral), they can range in diameter from several millimeters to many times that size. A biomaterial must be typically have the following properties: it must be inert or specifically interactive, biocompatible, mechanically and chemically stable (or biodegradable), processable (for manufacturability), have good shelf life, be nonthrombogenic (does not cause clot formation) if it is blood-contacting, and be sterilizable. There are examples of biomaterials and compatibility problems which arise from the materials not having the above properties. These include dialysis tubing made of cellulose acetate, a â€Å"commodity plastic†, which is known to activate platelets and blood complement. Additionally, Dacron, a polymer widely used in textiles, has been used in vascular grafts, but only gives occlusion-free service for diameters larger than 6 mm. Finally, commercial grade polyurethanes, initially used in artificial hearts, can be thrombogenic (they cause clot formation). There are many prominent applications of biomaterials used in the medical profession today. Biomaterials are used in orthopedics for joint replacements (hip, knee), bone cements, bone defect fillers, fracture fixation plates, and artificial tendons and ligaments. They are also used for cardiovascular vascular grafts, heart valves, pacemakers, artificial heart and ventricular assist device components, stents, balloons, and blood substitutes. Another application is in ophthalmics, for contact lenses, corneal implants and artificial corneas, and intraocular lenses. They can also have cosmetic applications, such as in augmentation mammoplasty. Finally, other applications include dental implants, cochlear implants, tissue screws and tacks, burn and wound dressings and artificial skin, tissue adhesives and sealants, drug-delivery systems, matrices for cell encapsulation and tissue engineering, and sutures. 2). The following paragraphs will provide an analysis of the modern pop can and the considerations taken by the manufacturer in its design. The overall design of the can has several advantages over another popular beverage container, the glass bottle. The pop can is inherently light weight and cheap due to the aluminum or steel alloys that are used in its creation. The cost of a can accounts for only about 4 cents of the price of a canned beverage. About 10 cents goes for advertising. The 12 ounces of beverage in the container typically costs less than a penny to produce. It is also not easily breakable, unlike glass. The shape of the can is easy to hold in the hand, making it much easier for a customer to use. The aluminum or steel alloys of the can also have the ability to undergo expansion without breaking the container. Thus, if a pop can is frozen, it will not explode, it will simply deform. Glass, on the other hand, would not as easily deform and would likely break in this situation. Pop cans are also allow cheaper packaging methods than bottles to be used. This is because the cans can come into contact with each other without breaking, unlike bottles. This allows many cans to be transported without the need for extensive protective barriers between the individual cans. An additional feature that allows the cans to be more easily transported and organised is the shape of the bottom and top of the can. Both the bottom and top have a lip. This lip protrudes upward from the top and downwards from the bottom. In other words, there is a indentation in both the top and bottom of the can, as shown in the following figure: The radii of the top and bottom lips are matched so that one can is able to be stacked on top of another can. In other words, the top lip of one can fits neatly into the bottom lip of the second can. This is shown in the following diagram. This stacking feature is not possible with bottles, since the bottom base of a bottle does not resemble its top spout. The pop-top soda, with their attached tab, can provide an excellent example of inherently safer design from everyday life. When soda in cans was first introduced, a separate device was required to open these cans, and the first â€Å"pop-tops† represented a major advance in convenience (and environmentalism). The initial pop-tops were scored tear strips in the can top with attached rings or levers to grasp and tear the metal tab from the can. The top was completely removed from the can once the tab was opened, and this top was then discarded. These tabs were therefore environmental hazards when discarded. Alternatively, some people would dispose of the tab by placing it into the can before drinking the soda. This caused the tab to occasionally be swallowed when drinking from the can, so it sometimes had to be surgically removed. The current design of the pop-top soda can, where the tab remains an integral part of the can after opening, represents an inherently safer design. While the tab can be detached by flexing it back and forth until the metal fails, this requires some additional effort to do. It is therefore easier to use the can safely. The procedure involved in creating pop cans will now be outlined. This procedure demonstrates some of the major components of the cans. Modern pop cans are made from either steel or aluminium using advanced engineering and sophisticated technology. There is a special grade of low-carbon steel is used for steel drink cans, which is coated on each side with a very thin layer of tin. This tin allows the surface to be protected against corrosion. It also acts as a lubricant while the can is being formed. In aluminium cans, the aluminium is alloyed with magnese and magnesium, providing greater strength and ductility. Aluminium alloys of different strengths and thickness are used for making the can body and the end. The reason that the alloy used from the end must be stronger than that used for the body will be described shortly. The steps involved in manufacturing cans are illustrated in a simplified way below: The aluminium or steel strip arrives at the can manufacturing plant in huge coils. A thin film of oil is then used to lubricate the strip. The strip is then fed continuously through a cupping press that blanks and draws thousands of shallow cups every minute. Each cup is pressed through a set of tungsten carbide rings. This ironing process redraws and literally thins and raises the walls of the cans into their final can shape. Trimmers are then used to remove the surplus irregular edge and cut each can to a precise, specific height. The excess can material is recycled. These trimmed can bodies are passed through highly efficient washers. They are then dried. As a result, all traces of oil are removed in preparation for coating internally and externally. The clean cans are coated externally with a clear or pigment base coat. This coat provides a good surface for the printing inks. The cans are then passed through a hot air oven to dry the lacquer onto the surface. Next, a highly sophisticated printer/decorator applies the printed design in up to six colours. A varnish is also applied. 9.A coat of varnish is also applied to the base of each can by a rim-coater. 10.The cans pass through a second oven which dries the inks and varnish. 11.The inside of each can is sprayed with lacquer. This special layer is to protect the can itself from corrosion and its contents from any possibility of interaction with the metal. 12.Once again, lacquered internal and external surfaces are dried in an oven. 13.The cans are passed through a necker/flanger. Here the diameter of the wall is reduced or ‘necked-in'. The top of the can is flanged outwards to accept the end once the can has been filled. 14.Every can is tested at each stage of manufacture. At the final stage it passes through a light tester which automatically rejects any cans with pinholes or fractures. 15.The finished can bodies are then transferred to the warehouse to be automatically palletised before dispatch to filling plant. The Can End 1.Can end manufacture begins with a coil of special alloy aluminum sheet. 2.The sheet is fed through a press which stamps out thousands of ends every minute. 3.At the same stage the edges are curled. 4.The newly formed ends are passed through a lining machine which applies a very precise bead of compound sealant around the inside of the curl. 5.A video inspection system checks the ends to ensure they are perfect. TAB.The pull tabs are made from a narrow width coil of aluminum. The strip is first pierced and cut and the tab is formed in two further stages before being joined to the can end. 6.The ends pass through a series of dies which score them and attach the tabs, which are fed in from a separate source. 7.The final product is the retained ring pull end. 8.The finished ends, ready for capping the filled cans, are packaged in paper sleeves and palletised for shipment to the can filler. As mentioned above, a printer/decorator is used in the manufacturing of cans to apply a printed design in up to six colours to the can body. A varnish is then applied. A varnish is a viscid liquid, consisting of a solution of resinous matter in an oil, or a volatile liquid, typically laid on work with a brush. Once it is applied, the varnish soon dries, either by evaporation or chemical action, and the resinous part forms thus a smooth, hard surface, with a beautiful gloss, capable of resisting, to a greater or less degree, the influences of air and moisture. The varnish therefore improves the appearance of the printed design on the can. It also increases the durability of the design by ensuring that it is more resistant to the wearing effects of the elements. This can be readily observed through common experience. Even old, used pop cans retain their printed designs very well, despite being subjected to the elements such as moisture or air. Bottles, on the other hand, typically have paper labels attached with glue. This requires glue and paper. These bottle labels also do not possess the glossy sheen of the pop can design. Finally, they are more easily susceptible to the influences of the elements, particularly air and moisture. For example, placing a glass bottle and its label in water will cause the label to saturate with water. This degrades the legibility and appearance of the label, and greatly increases the chance that it will tear or fall off the bottle. In contrast, placing a pop can in water has no effect on the legibility, appearance, or durability of the printed design. The base-coater gives the can an exterior coat to enable the printing colours to fix properly (the base coat is sometimes The of the pop can is a separate piece to allow filling by the beverage maker prior to the top being installed. It can now be revealed why bottled beer and beer from a tap tastes different from beer in a can. Be forewarned: if you're a six-pack enthusiast, you're not going to like the explanation. When you sip a can of your favorite brew, you are savoring not only fermented grain and hops but just a hint of the same preservative that kept the frog you dissected in 10th-grade biology class lily-pad fresh: formaldehyde. What is formaldehyde doing in beer? The same thing it's doing in pop and other food and drink packaged in steel and aluminum cans: killing bacteria. But not the bacteria in the drink, the bacteria that attacks a lubricant used in the manufacture of the can. Notre Dame's Steven R. Schmid, associate professor of aerospace and mechanical engineering, is an expert in tribology – the study of friction, wear and the lubrication – applied to manufacturing and machine design. The co-author of two textbooks, Fundamentals of Machine Elements and Manufacturing Engineering and Technology (considered the bible of manufacturing engineering), Schmid has conducted extensive research on the manufacturing processes used in the production of beverage and other kinds of cans. Schmid explains that back in the 1940s, when brewers and other beverage makers began putting drinks in steel (and, later, aluminum) cans, the can makers added formaldehyde to a milk-like mixture of 95 percent water and 5 percent oil that's employed in the can manufacturing process. The mixture, called an emulsion, bathes the can material and the can-shaping tooling, cooling and lubricating both. Additives in the oil part are certain bacteria's favorite food. But if the bacteria eat the emulsion, it won't work as a lubricant anymore. So can makers add a biocide to the emulsion to kill the bacteria. Before a can is filled and the top attached, this emulsion is rinsed off, but a small residue of the oil-water mixture is inevitably left behind, including trace amounts of the biocide. The amounts remaining are not enough to be a health hazard, but they are enough to taste, and the first biocide used back in the 1940s was formaldehyde. In the decades since, can makers have devised new formulas for emulsions, always with an eye toward making them more effective, more environmentally friendly and less costly. But because formaldehyde was in the original recipe, people got used to their canned Budweiser or whatever having a hint of the famous preservative's flavor. For this reason, Schmid says, every new emulsion formula since then has had to be made to taste like formaldehyde, â€Å"or else people aren't going to accept it.† Extensive tests are run to make sure the lubricant and additives taste like formaldehyde. â€Å"It's not that it tastes okay. It's just what people are used to tasting,† he says. (Miller Genuine Draft and similar brews, Schmid says, use biocides that have no flavor.) The formaldehyde flavor legacy is one little-known aspect of can-making. Another involves the smooth coating applied to the inside of cans. The rinse cycle that attempts to wash off the emulsion also aims to remove particulate metal debris that forms on the metal's surface during the bending and shaping of a can. Like the emulsion, some of the microscopic debris always remains after rinsing. Unlike the emulsion, it can be dangerous to swallow. To keep powdered metal out of a can's contents, Schmid says, manufacturers spray-coat the inside with a polymer dissolved in a solvent. When the can is heated, the solvent boils away, leaving only the protective polymer coating. The coating not only plasters any microscopic debris to the can wall and away from the food, it keeps the food from interacting with can material, an especially important consideration with steel cans. â€Å"Say you've got tomato soup in this steel can. You don't want that acidic soup corroding your can. It would kill your can, and the can would adulterate your food,† Schmid says. â€Å"It's also why you're advised that when you go camping and you have Spaghettios you don't cook them in the can, because the polymer will degrade and you're going to be eating polymer.† (Industry sources tell Schmid that the typical consequences of such a culinary blunder are headaches and constipation.) Schmid says can manufacturers are forever searching for ways to improve efficiency in their struggle to stay price competitive with plastic and glass bottles. A single can-tooling machine can form 400 cans a minute. In a typical process, all but the top is shaped during a single stroke through a disk of aluminum or steel. The top, seamed on after filling, is made of a more expensive aluminum alloy, rich in magnesium. The added ductile strength of the magnesium is necessary so another machine can mash down a pillar of the metal to form the rivet that attaches the pop top. Today's beverage cans are â€Å"necked† near the top for a reason. The narrower-diameter means less of the expensive lid alloy is needed. It saves a minuscule fraction of a cent per can, but it adds up, Schmid says. â€Å"In this country alone we use about a can per person per day, so you have to make 250 million cans per day. It's an amazing thing to watch these machines kick out these cans.† Rivet is likely a separate part from the tab. It should be strong enough to attach the tab to the can and to ensure that it does not break when the can is opened. Lip on top of can prevents liquid from flowing down the side of the can. Bottom is indented to enable stacking even when the tab has been opened. The indent provides the necessary room for the open tab. For recycling purposes, pop cans can be neatly compacted flat, and are easy to transport using a wide range of containers. Rivet is a separate piece which connects the tab to the can top. Top of the pop can is stamped with words such as â€Å"recyclable† and â€Å"return for refund†. Thus, the alloy of the top must be soft enough to allow this stamping to occur. Aluminum costs more than steel, and the price has been rising. Steel â€Å"minimills† now have continuous casting processes that make sheet steel thin enough to form seamless cans. And there is competition from other materials as well. â€Å"We h ave to find ways to make cans lighter and lighter to keep fending off polymers, steel and glass. Lighter cans means lower prices to the consumer, who's then more likely to buy cans off the grocery shelf instead of two-liter bottles or glass.† ALCOA's answer is lightweighting, designing cans to use the thinnest aluminum possible within the constraints of strength and appearance. In 1993, Americans recycled 59.5 billion aluminum cans, 3 billion more than in 1991, and raised the national aluminum can recycling rate to 2 out of every 3 cans. Aluminum can recycling saves 95% of the energy needed to make aluminum from bauxite ore. Energy savings in 1993 alone were enough to light a city the size of Pittsburgh for 6 years. Special pallets and stacking techniques are used to protect can bodies from crushing stresses and to enable quick and efficient loading into the filling machine line. The first beverage can, filled by a brewer in Newark, New Jersey in 1935, weighed three ounces. Today, an aluminum beverage can weighs one half ounce – 600% less than the original beverage can. Can manufacturers strive to do even better through a process called â€Å"light weighting†-the use of lighter can ends and thinner body walls. Using less material at the beginning of the manufacturing process results in a more effective means of creating safe, reliable, performance-driven packaging. This results in less waste once the packages' contents have been consumed. It also saves manufacturers money – an added incentive. 3). The diameter of the bar is 12.7 mm. Its radius is half the diameter. Therefore, its radius can be calculated to be (12.7 mm)/ 2 = 6.35 mm. By applying the conversion factor that 1000 mm = 1 m, this radius can also be expressed as (6.35 mm) * (1 m / 1000 mm) = 6.35 x 10-3 m. The bar has a cross-sectional area given by the following formula: Cross-sectional area = ?r2 where r is the radius of the steel bar. Using this formula, the cross-sectional area of the bar can be calculated to be: Cross-sectional area = ?(6.35 x 10-3 m)2 Cross-sectional area = 1.266768698 x 10-4 m2 (Cross-sectional area = 1.27 x 10-4 m2 when significant figures are applied). Gravity applies a force to the bar proportional to the bar's mass. This force is given by the formula: Force due to Gravity = (Mass of object) * (Acceleration of Gravity) If we assume that the steel bar is located at the surface of the earth, the acceleration of gravity is approximately 9.8 m/s2 at this elevation. Therefore, the force applied to the bar by gravity can be calculated to be: Force due to Gravity = (7000 kg) * (9.8 m/s2) Force due to Gravity = 68600 kg*m/s2 (Force due to Gravity = 70000 kg*m/s2 when significant figures are applied) The stress placed on the bar is given by the following formula: Stress = (force) / (unit area) Therefore, the stress placed on the bar can be calculated to be: Stress = (68600 kg*m/s2) / (1.266768698 x 10-4 m2) Stress = 541535326.2 kg/(m*s2) (Stress = 500000000 kg/(m*s2) when significant figures are applied) The steel bar has a modulus of elasticity of 205,000 Mpa. 1 Pa is defined to be equal to 1 kg/(m*s2). Using the conversion factor that 1 x 106 Pa = 1 Mpa, 1 Mpa is defined to be equal to 1 x 106 kg/(m*s2). We can therefore express the modulus of elasticity of the steel bar in Pa as (205,000 Mpa) * (1 x 106 Pa / 1 Mpa) = 2.05 x 1012 Pa. The strain experienced by the steel bar is the fractional deformation it undergoes when a stress is applied. This strain can be represented mathematically by the following formula: where l represents the length of bar, and ?l represents the change in length of the bar due to the applied stress. The elastic region of the stress-strain curve refers to the portion of the curve in which an increase in stress will cause a linearly proportional increase in strain. Within this elastic region, removal of the stress will cause the strain to be reduced to zero as well. In other words, the material is not permanently deformed, and removal of the stress causes the material to return to its original dimensions. The strain is therefore reversible, or elastic. In the elastic region, therefore, stress and strain can be related by a proportionality coefficient. This proportionality coefficient relating the reversible strain to stress in the elastic region of the stress-strain curve is known as the modulus of elasticity. This modulus of elasticity can be represented mathematically as: Modulus of Elasticity = (Elastic Stress) / (Unit Strain) This equation can be rearranged to solve for the unit strain. This rearranged equation is expressed as: Unit Strain = (Elastic Stress) / (Modulus of Elasticity) Assuming the stress applied to the bar is small enough to ensure that the bar is still operating in the elastic region of the stress-strain curve, we can use the above equation to determine how much the bar will be strained by the load. Mathematically, this solution takes the following form: Unit Strain = (541535326.2 kg/(m*s2)) / (2.05 x 1012 Pa) Unit Strain = (541535326.2 kg/(m*s2)) / (2.05 x 1012 kg/(m*s2)) Unit Strain = 2.641635738 x 10-4 (Unit Strain = 3 x 10-4 when significant figures are applied) This strain is unitless because it represents the fractional deformation of the bar when the stress is applied.