Saturday, August 31, 2019
Shut down Facebook Facebook has become a place where everyone wants to be nowadays. Not only is it wrong to be on there every single day, it is also unhealthy, which is why Facebook should be banned. People no longer care about going out and making friends. Instead, they rather stay inside and become friends with people they do not even know on Facebook. These kinds of actions can be really dangerous. People can easily create Facebook accounts, meaning that it is also easy to portray someone theyÃ¢â¬â¢re not. No one ever knows who really is sitting behind that computer screen.Especially young people, they can be ignorant at times thinking they know their friends good enough to give them their information. Most people are unaware of how easy it is for a stranger to collect all of their information. Another bad thing about Facebook is all the drama it can cause between friends, families, or any kind of relationship. It is sad how arguments are posted for the whole world to see. Teena gers every so often lie about their age just so they do not have to ask for their parentÃ¢â¬â¢s approval. This in most cases happens because teenagers are doing things theyÃ¢â¬â¢re not suppose to.In addition, people sometimes tend to hide their identities on purpose to do unpleasant things such as stalking, and bullying. There are also sick people who create fake Facebook accounts to harass little kids. Facebook is not good anymore. Many people are taking advantage of it and it is better for it to be shut down for good. No one needs Facebook, anyone can survive without it. It is healthier to be out there living life than sitting behind a computer talking about it. It would certainly make a change if Facebook were banned forever.
Friday, August 30, 2019
Chapter 9 Review Questions 1. What is magnetism? 2. Torque is ________. 3. A magnetic field is _________. 4. True or False: A permanent magnet is a piece of material that has been magnetized and can hold its magnetic strength for a reasonable length of time. 5. How is an electromagnet produced? 6. Which of the following produces the best electromagnet? 7. Unlike poles of a magnet _________each other and like poles_________ each other. 8. What part does polarity play in the operation of an electric motor? 9. What part of a motor produces an inductive magnetic field within itself to facilitate the rotating motion? 10. What part does the frequency of alternating current play in the operation of an electric motor? 11. What would be the speed of a two pole motor operating on a 120 Volts 60 Hz power supply? 12. What are the five types of single phase motors used in the industry? 13. Which of the following correctly lists the motorÃ¢â¬â¢s starting torque from lowest to highest? 14. Which of the following is a common use of a shaded-pole motor? 15. How does a shaded-pole motor operate? 16. How can a shaded-pole motor be reversed? 17. What determines the rotation of a shaded-pole motor? 18. Draw a diagram of a three-speed, shaded-pole motor. 19. What enables a split-phase motor to develop enough torque to begin rotation? 20. What removes the starting winding from the electrical circuit of an open type split phase motor once it reaches 75% of its operating speed? 21. What are the three probable areas of trouble in a split-phase motor? 22. What is the unit of measurement for the strength of a capacitor? 23. What is the purpose of a capacitor? 24. What is the difference between a running and a running and a starting capacitor? 25. List the five capacitor replacement rules. 26. Explain the operation of a permanent split-capacitor motor. 27. How are a PSC motor and a capacitor start capacitor-run motor similar? 28. What are the advantages and disadvantages of using the following types of motors? 29. What are the similarities between an open-type split-phase motor and a capacitor-start motor? 30. Which of the following is an advantage in using a three-phase motor? 31. Draw a wiring diagram of a capacitor start-capacitor-run motor. 32. True or False: All starting apparatuses are mounted externally to the hermetic compressor shell. 33. What is the process in troubleshooting any electric motor? 34. Which of the following is the capacitance of an 88 uF and a 108 uF starting capacitor connected in series? 35. Which of the following is the capacitance of two 20 uF running capacitors connected in parallel? 36. If a capacitor produces 15A on a 240 volt supply, which of the following is its microfarad rating? 37. Which of the following capacitors could be used to replace a 35 uF, 370 running capacitor? 38. Which of the following capacitors could be used to replace a 188 uF, 250 V starting capacitor? 39. Which of the following capacitors or combination of capacitors could be used to re place a 45 uF, 370 V running capacitor? 40. Which of the following capacitors or combination of capacitors could be used to replace an 88 uF, 250 V starting capacitor? 41. Find the common, start, and run terminals of the following hermetic compressors. A. B. C. 42. Briefly explain the procedure for troubleshooting hermetic compressor motors. 43. What are the electrical failure categories for hermetic compressor motors? 44. What precautions should be taken when checking hermetic compressor motors? 45. What would be the highest allowable resistance reading for a grounded compressor motor? 46. What are the advantages of using an electronically commutated motor over a PSC motor? 47. Explain the construction of an ECM. 48. An ECM is a ______________. 49. True or False: The resistance readings of the windings of a properly operating ECM should be equal. 50. True or False: The line voltage power supply of an ECM should be disconnected or connected with the power on.
Thursday, August 29, 2019
Phillips Matsuhisha case analysis - Essay Example One of the strengths of SWOT lies in the fact that it is easier to use and provides a comprehensive analysis of the key drivers of changes that organizations must take into account to deal with the emerging changes. Further, PorterÃ¢â¬â¢s five forces is also one of the most effective management tools to use as it provides a very comprehensive overview of the different factors affecting the firm at the same time. What is also important to understand is the fact that PorterÃ¢â¬â¢s five forces provides an opportunity to analyze the factors which are unique to each industry or firm thus each firm can tailor its strategies according to relative influence of each factor its success and failure. 2. The facts provided in the case study indicate that there are various symptoms which are leading towards a common cause of the problem. What is critical to note here is the fact that both the companies made changes into its organizational structure and refocused their strategic direction due to changes taking place externally i.e. most of these changes were reactive rather than proactive therefore strategic management at both the companies was relatively weak and reactive. Thus what were corrected during all this period were the correction of symptoms and not the correction of actual root cause of the problem. 3. Ford is one of the companies which faced extreme volatile market conditions in the wake of current credit crunch and have to face the ultimate reality. Since 2006 it was not only slashing its number of employees but was closing its plants too.1 Similarly, HSBCÃ¢â¬â¢s US operations also suffered huge losses due to market conditions and inability of the bank to anticipate the changes taking place in the market. HSBCÃ¢â¬â¢s mortgage portfolio in US suffered huge losses due to too much focus on short term gains rather than focusing on delivering long term value.2 Kodak was once a
Wednesday, August 28, 2019
Task 1-Local social inequality is increasingly disrupting community life and destroying people's sense of belonging. Do you agree with this statement What evidence supports your view - Essay Example Different investors may also have different beta formulas as to how they will determine the activity of a certain stock (Dykstra, 2009), but to keep things simple and so as to not cause so much confusion, we will stick to this formula at hand. If you are planning to invest in AmazonÃ¢â¬â¢s stocks, using this simple beta formula will be a good starting place for you. Now in regards to whether or not a companyÃ¢â¬â¢s earnings has a bearing on the stocks increase or decrease, it is important to understand that just because a company may announce that its earnings has increased, this does not necessarily mean that the stock in the company will increase. There have been many times when a company will announce that their earnings have increased: yet, their stocks have fallen. This is because the actual earnings did not turn out as the market thought that it would (AAI journal, 2010). Whether or not a companyÃ¢â¬â¢s stocks rise is not based on the earnings of a company; rather, they are solely based on expectations. If the market expects that a company does well, then the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s shares are going to rise. If the market thinks that the company is going to fall, then the shares are going to fall. Sometimes, the company can do unexpected things, proving the predictions of the market wrong. For instance, if the company earns more than what was expected, then the company will have proven the market wrong. Then there is the case when the company will expect that a particular company will have high earning; however, this is not the case. This happened with the Lehman Brothers investment firm. The Lehman Brothers investment firm was expected to have high earnings; however, this was not the case. The earnings were far lower than the market expected they would be (AAI Journal, 2010). AAI journal 2010, Great Expectations: Earnings and Their impact, Investing Minds, United States, viewed 21 January 2010,
Tuesday, August 27, 2019
Describing and explaining the picture attached - Essay Example There are rough expressions of colors, and a feeling comes that one of the colors has been ripped off at many a places, giving the feel of an old, worn-out painting. The overall look of the painting appears to be flat because the artist has not used vivid colors to distinguish one object from another. The proportion of the size of all objects is regular. Although there is not a clear message in the painting, yet I feel that there is a very deep note, keeping in view the murkiness of the white and black color that rules the painting. There is a sense of gloominess; and, the mother seems sad, but the presence of her baby is a spark of life. The painter has tried to reinforce the truth of life, which is a combination of sadness and happiness, or of dark and light shadows in life. Sadness rules in the painting, as the mother is not able to cope with the stressful moments of her life; while, joy is also there in the form of a
Monday, August 26, 2019
Primary Document Analysis Paper #2 - Essay Example Best symbolizing this was the Red Summer riots of Chicago Ã¢â¬â often referring to Ã¢â¬Ëthe Awakening of Black America.Ã¢â¬â¢ This event was to change the face of American socialization, bringing to the fore, the contentious issue of racism and racial discrimination. This paper will analyze the primary documents on the race riots that occurred in the summer & fall of 1919 and factors led to the Red Summer. It will also address issues of race, politics, ideology, socioeconomics, and foreign affairs present in the urban violence that occurred and the role that the American media played in the Red Summer Riots. The Red Summer Riots portrayed a Ã¢â¬Ëboiling pointÃ¢â¬â¢ in the nationÃ¢â¬â¢s long history of racial strife, through violent demonstrating against the African AmericansÃ¢â¬â¢ long discrimination and oppression. In the summer and fall seasons of 1919, Chicago amongst a host of other populous cities became battlegrounds that witnessed continuous rioting. Not only was this mayhem experienced in the urban-city setting, but more so, in the rural areas of the South specifically those in the former confederacy, such as Mississippi, Arkansas, Texas and Georgia amongst others. As a result, millions of American lives were disrupted with hundreds (if not thousands) of people dying most of whom were African Americans. In the aftermath of the riots, thousands of individuals were injured, with many more being forced to flee from their neighborhoods and homes. In the overall context, not only was the social fabric affected in terms of civil unrest, but also in the form of economic depreci ation. Various businesses did loss millions of American dollars to looting and general destruction of their premises (Gardiner, 1919). Different aspects present in the society during the Red Summer Riots such as the media (print and television) played a vital role in fueling the prevailing social contexts for
Sunday, August 25, 2019
Lift observation - Essay Example Modern lift design aims at providing passengers with more aesthetic enjoyment. The need for mobility within buildings has enhanced the design of lifts to create places of character and destination where people can meet. Lifts bring a sense of ease and pleasure among people. Ethnographic inquiry provides a seamless compatibility of ideas between the researcherÃ¢â¬â¢s own observations and other users; lift users. The perception of technical design determines how people interacted with lifts (Carroll, 2000). This research will consider how lift design enhances social interaction. As it has been the case, once people got into a lift, colleagues acted like strangers and dropped their voices to a hush. People rushed into corners and stood motionless. Passengers watched as floor numbers counted to their respective floors. These behavior and technological advancements in lift designs has prompted numerous researchers to study the inherent social interactions. The psychology of the architectural environment determines how the presence or absence of specific design features triggered lift habits (Honey, 2003). This study was based on observing lifts in The Shard; a high-rise building where lift usage is a necessity, and London Underground; where socio-cultural dimensions come into play. The quantifiable and unquantifiable dynamics of these spaces assist in gauging user behavior. Observations were divided into two parts to enhance the amount of data collected. In the first stage, I sat outside the lift banks watching people use the lifts while in the second stage; I travelled up and down trying to blend in with other users. Using the lifts brought about a clear understanding of the experience; from the usersÃ¢â¬â¢ point of view. Population determined the level of social interaction. In London Underground, the population was higher than that in The Shard. The stations have barrier free access to and from street level. In The Shard, a security desk
Saturday, August 24, 2019
Reasons Why The Oslo Peace Process Of The 1990s Failed To Deliver The Promise Of A Lasting Peace Between Israel And The Palestinians - Essay Example However, the Oslo process collapsed unexpectedly resulting in extension of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. The conflict between Israel and Palestine continues to draw more attention from different countries and international organizations. The conflict has been in existence for quite a long period irrespective of the many attempts to resolve the issue. As time goes, the situation becomes worse due to the increasing violence and despair. Moreover, international organizations appear to be despairing and hopes that peace will be restored in Middle East are fading. By the end of 19th century, two opposing nationalistic movements were born in Middle East. One movement was born amongst the Jews while the other movement was borne amongst the Arabs. Each of the two groups intended to attain sovereignty for their people. With time, the two groups started conflicting which initiated the Israeli Palestinian conflict, which is at times viewed as a conflict between Arabs and Israelites. The Osl o accords were officially signed on September 13, 1993 between the government of Israel and the PLO. The singing was done in Washington, DC following months of negotiations. This paper focuses on the reasons why the Oslo Peace Process of the 1990s failed to deliver the promise of a just and lasting peace between Israel and the Palestinians. Overview of the Israel-Palestinian Conflict It has been more than 50 years since the State of Israel was established. Ever since then, Israel and Palestine have been in recurring conflicts. The conflict between Israel and Palestine started in the 19th Century. In 1967, Israel occupied Gaza and West Bank, which resulted in aggressiveness between the Jews and Palestinians. With time, the Jews continued to settle in the disputed land. The settlement was characterized by massive constructions on the disputed territory. The Palestinians reacted by forming a resistant movement referred to as Intifada (sdonline 2011). The movement was involved in aggres sive activities such as stone throwing and was mainly located in the Gaza strip as well as West Bank. This was followed by numerous skirmishes between the Israelites and Palestinians. Eventually, there was an outbreak of the intifada. Israel tried to curb the confrontations by using its army to punish Palestinian protesters resisting occupation of Palestinian land by the Jews settlers. As the confrontations intensified, PLO and other Palestinians in the Diaspora felt the need for restoration of peace between Israel and Palestine to end the conflicts (Rynhold 2008; Rabie 2007-2012; Rynhold 2009). In around 1990, U.S. was interested in the several conflicts within the Middle East including the Israel Palestinian conflict. US wanted a peace conference between the warring Arab countries, an Idea that was rejected by Yitzhak Shamir, the Israel Prime minister. The US government continued to pressure Israel and a conference was eventually held on 30 October 1991. The conference is popularl y known as the Madrid Conference. The US president George Bush Sr. together with Mikhail Gorbachev, the Soviet President, facilitated it. Nonetheless, Palestinian was force to form a joint delegation with Jordan for them to attend this conference. Later on, Rabin replaced Shamir as the Israel Prime minister. However, the conflict between Israel and Palestine was far from being settled (Rynhold 2009). The Oslo Accord signed in 1993 was the first face-to-face accord ever signed between the
Friday, August 23, 2019
Reduction of VAP - Research Paper Example Its risk factors include patients with mechanical ventilation, cystic fibrosis, debilitation, impaired immune responses intravenous drug abuse and multiple administering of antibacterial drugs. Contaminated disinfection solutions, nebulizers, and topical anesthetics have been associated with sporadic outbreaks of the bacterial disease. Sporadic outbreaks of the infection have been noted in ICU and burn unit. Non-fermenting gram-negative bacteria with a rod shape. The predisposing factors for infection or colonization are: central venous catheters; mechanical ventilation; ICU location; invasive devices; organ transplant; immunosuppressed patients; neutropenia; cytotoxic chemotherapy; prior antibiotic therapy; tracheotomies. The bacteria can be isolated the surrounding such as ventilator tubing, suction equivalent, water sources, spirometers, disinfecting solutions, hospital sinks and nebulizers. The two most common microorganisms associated with ventilator-associated pneumonia and oth er healthcare associated pneumonia (HAP). The pathogens can arise secondary to environmental surrounding rather than from the patients indigenous flora. Legionella growth is optimal at temperatures between 25Ã ° and 42Ã °. Legionella species is found mostly aquatic environments. Legionella has also been isolated from evaporative condensers, cooling towers and heat portable water distribution systems. Transmission occurs through inhalation of aerosols. Prevention of ventilator-associated pneumonia focuses on reducing the risk of aspiration.
Causes of a Problem of Haier - Essay Example These systems were very successful regarding the Chinese culture of management but since the company wants to increase its global installed base there is a question on how it is going to achieve it by following the same human resource management practices. These are the following: increase of employee internal competition by implementing an internal ranking of employees. Employees are judged by all performance dimensions and they have to complete their tasks the same day and have continuous self-assessments. Each employee is almost an independent profit center so entrepreneurship is developed. Managers are also continuously appraised like employees and both are given chances to improve their performance by providing abundant training. A talent pool inside the company is also created. Haier has followed a product diversification strategy i.e. it has expanded to 86 different product categories. It is doubtful if Haier can pursue the same following strategy since product expansion requires heavy investment. Then the second part of its strategy was product innovation to niche markets i.e. developing products for specific market segments. Under careful consideration, this is a strategy that can be pursued at the current moment. Globalization which is the third component of the strategy is expanding to other countries in all aspects i.e. production, alliances etc. Globalization can also be limited for the time being since it requires heavy financial investment when it comes to building new factory sites that can be quite risky at this period of time. Globalization demands also understanding foreign cultures so it requires further research on this issue. The fourth component was marketing initiatives that emphasized product quality and market research.
Thursday, August 22, 2019
Intermediate accounting Essay 1. Distinguish between perpetual and periodic inventory system. Why conduct physical inventory? When should, if any a physical inventory count occur? Perpetual inventory system is a system for determining the cost of goods sold by keeping continuous records of the physical inventory as goods are bought and sold. In other words, under the perpetual inventory system Ã¢â¬â records are kept of the quantity and usually the cost of individual items of inventory throughout the year, as items are bought and sold. The cost of goods sold is recorded as goods are transferred to customers, and the inventory balance is kept current throughout the year, as items are bought and sold. The physical inventory is important because it is an actual amount of all merchandise on hand at the end of an accounting period. The actual physical count of the product must occur after the Pre-Physical Inventory update is run.Ã It means that no movements of the product can occur until after the actual count is done.Ã In other words the product is frozen until a physical count is done on the item.Ã After the actual count the movement of the individual item within the product group can resume while other products are being count. In periodic inventory system, it is a system for determining the cost of goods sold by deducting the ending inventory (based on a physical count of the inventory) from the beginning inventory plus total purchases over the period. 2. Intangible assets have two main characteristics. They lack physical existence and they are not financial instruments. Costs incurred internally to create intangibles are generally expensed as incurred. Explain the procedure for amortizing intangible assets. Intangible assets are a long-term assets that have no physical substance but have a value based on rights or privileges that accrue to the owner. Intangible assetsÃ dont have the obvious physical value of aÃ factory or equipment; they can prove very valuable for a firm and can be critical to its long-term success or failure. For example, a company such as Coca-Cola wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t be nearly asÃ successful was it not for the high value obtained through its brand-name recognition. Although brand recognition is not a physical asset you can see or touch, its positive effects on bottom-line profits can prove extremely valuable to firms such as Coca-Cola, whose brand strength drives global sales year after year. In FASB STATEMENT NO. 142, the useful life of certain intangible assets is difficult to judge, particularly assets that involve contracted or other legally set terms. Companies use the useful life of assets to guide their decisions on whether or not to amortize them on their financial statements. The key factor in determining whether to amortize an Ã¢â¬Å"otherÃ¢â¬ intangible asset is its useful life. If it is indefinite, the asset is not amortized. Although the question of whether an assetÃ¢â¬â¢s useful life is definite or indefinite may seem straightforward, certain intangiblesÃ¢â¬âparticularly those that are a result of contracted or other legally set termsÃ¢â¬âare difficult to judge. Prior to the issuance of FASB Statement no. 142, the maximum useful life of an intangible asset was 40 years. Could an asset a company was amortizing over a useful life of less than 40 years now have an indefinite life under Statement no. 142? The answer is Ã¢â¬Å"maybe.Ã¢â¬ Prior to its implementation companies may not have taken all of the three criteria in Statement no. 142Ã¢â¬ârenewability, costs and modificationsÃ¢â¬âinto account in making amortization decisions. Further, it was not an option for an asset to have an indefinite useful life, regardless of how a company evaluated the criteria before Statement no. 142. The limit was 40 years. The bottom line? Even those intangibles that werenÃ¢â¬â¢t assigned the full 40-year useful life prior to Statement no. 142 should be evaluated against the statementÃ¢â¬â¢s criteria. They may have indefinite useful lives as well. References http://www.sdc.on.ca/sdc6/help/Physical%20Inventory%20Process.htm Jennefer M. Mueller. Journal of Accountancy: Amortization of Certain Intangible Assets. DECEMBER 2004 / Volume 198, Number 6.
Wednesday, August 21, 2019
Ethics of the US in the Vietnam War Aaron Sanders I think that OBrien says that courage is something that is gained once and as you encounter times where you have to break through your fears to do what is right, your courage slowly gains. His specific point of, stashing it away alternatively shows that you have to not be courageous all the time. He says that We must steadily increase our moral capital in preparation for that day when the account must be drawn out. meaning that there is that one time where all of your previous experiences that gained you courage, now lead you past a major barrier, unlike anything you had ever dealt with before. I wasnt exactly that surprised that he was a coward to enter the war, mainly in the sense that this was a war that many people had been opposed to, OBrien specifically stated on page 38 that, I was drafted to fight a war I hated Young, yes, and politically naive, but even so the American War in Vietnam seemed to me wrong.. If you dont want to do something, like go to war, then, of course, you were cowardly. Do I agree on these grounds? Yes, and No. First off, this is possibly the choice between living as a coward for the rest of your life, or by joining your brothers as they get slaughtered in the jungle a whole hemisphere away from home. Both sides of which I have an equal opinion for. It may be cowardice to not join in a fight overseas, but at least you get to live out your life at home but be labeled a coward. I also think though that you shouldnt be forced to fight for a cause that you dont believe in. However, if you get drafted, then you do have a moral obligation to go and fight for Americas beliefs. If you are drafted, you should think about the broader impact of what you not answering the draft call entails. When America enters a war it is always supposed to be for what is right. If you then dont answer that call you aid the enemy because they have a more dedicated military and citizen population all fighting for what they believe is right. Shame has a major role within the lives of the soldiers, because they feel that killing people is shameful and something that no one should have to do, or watching a buddy die and feeling as though you couldve stopped it. OBrien especially feels shame after he killed his first Viet Cong soldier, [Kiowa] told me that it was a good kill, that I was a soldier, and this was war, that I should shape up and stop staring Sometimes I try to forgive myself and other times I dont. (OBrien, 127-128). I would say that heroism and stupidity is both a result of the shame they feel. Heroism is shown in the sense that it gives the soldiers something more to fight for. Take the Alpha company after Kiowa died, Move it, [Mitchell Sanders] said. Kiowas waiting on us'(OBrien, 160). They had all felt shame that he had died in such a cruel way, having drowned in the villages latrine during a mortar strike. After that he is used as a rallying cry for the rest of the soldiers. However shame also caused stupi dity, The next morning [Rat Kiley] shot himself. He took off his boots and socks, laid out his medical kit, doped himself up then shot himself in the foot. (OBrien, 212) Rat was so shamed by the war that he would do anything to get out of it, even shoot himself in the foot. Its sad the lengths someone would go to rid themselves of the burden of shame. It ends up being stupid what it will drive them too, it may not even be a conscious decision that pushes them off the edge though in Rat Kileys case he fully made the decision. Shame can and should be used though as a rallying cry of sorts, because it gives you a reason more powerful than anything else to make the shame go away. In my mind the relationship that OBrien is talking about, between shame and courage is that the shame in life helps you grow courage if you use, like in question 3, put it away and let it grow. These little acts of heroism that may even seem like stupidity at times, though but not stupidity in the sense of shoo ting yourself in the foot or injuring yourself in other ways, but it is these acts of heroism that will grow your courage. After reading the chapter entitled Speaking of Courage and then getting sort of an analysis in Notes, the effect is actually quite powerful. I felt as though what OBrien had explained in Notes about some parts being fake and others real, couldnt take away from the empathy that I had developed with Norman. I think since some parts had to be fabricated, it actually made it more connectable mainly in the sense that you have a character in a town that takes you along and makes you feel what he is feeling through him reliving the memories. He had to keep thinking to himself because no one had let him just spill his guts, and its just an emotion mix of loneliness and shame. The feeling of shame of The truth, Norman Bowker wouldve said, is I let the guy go.' (OBrien, 147). My appreciation actually doesnt change for the story. The important parts are completely there and they are backed up by incredibly life-like storytelling, a town that doesnt feel much at home, and just being alone with t he thoughts of the character as he relives one of his most shameful moments. With Notes after it, the message of just how lost Norman was feeling that late evening on July 4th as he drove around the lake becomes painfully clear, [OBrien] received a long, disjointed letter in which Bowker described the problem of finding a meaningful use for his life after the war. (OBrien, 149). This reality check that Mr. OBrien put into the first few paragraphs of Notes really hit home what soldiers that come home from the war filled with shame and confusion really put up with. For me Speaking of Courage was really sealed as being completely true in my mind when Mr. OBrien said Speaking of Courage was written in 1975 at the suggestion of Norman Bowker, who three years later hanged himself in the locker room of a YMCA in his hometown in central Iowa. (OBrien, 149). I think Norman ending up committing suicide after all of his pain and suffering finally got to him, fit with how Speaking of Courage en ded, with him deciding that,. It was a pretty good show. (OBrien 148), it was this easing of pain that he wanted so badly after witnessing his best friend and comrade drown while he just stood and essentially watched helplessly, that made him decide to hang himself. Overall I think that Mr. OBrien really made me appreciate Speaking of Courage by making it believable with just the powerful simplicity of the complex feelingsÃâÃ Norman was experiencing. It was this simplicity that made it so easy and believable to be Norman, and feel what he was feeling. His narration of the reasoning behind how he got the idea also added to the authenticity because he tried to make it sound as though Norman was telling his story, perfectly relaying what he felt at every revolution around that lake. WORKS CITED OBrien, Tim. The Things They Carried: A Work of Fiction. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 2010. Print.
Tuesday, August 20, 2019
Impact of the Industrial Revolution Can you imagine life without these machines? Introduction At the dawn of the 18th century, technological and scientific advancements led to England being one of the most powerful and successful maritime power in the world. Foreign trade had scaled new heights and the demand for manufactured goods had increased. As a result of the use of machinery for agriculture, there was not much work in the rural areas. People migrated to towns looking for opportunities for work. Manufacturers attempted to find ways to increase production to meet the new demands. All these factors, among others, led to what was later termed as Ã¢â¬ËThe Industrial RevolutionÃ¢â¬â¢ by historian Arnold Tonybee. Onset of the Industrial Revolution Life before the Industrial Revolution was tough. For centuries, man had relied on animals and himself, to do all the work and make objects of daily use. With new technological advancements, man started to rely on technology to perform similar tasks Ã¢â¬â quickly and efficiently. This change from an agrarian economy where hand tools were used, to one, where machines such as the seed drill, steam engine, etc. were invented, factories were established, resulting in complete change in the life of the people is termed as the Industrial Revolution. Features of the Industrial Revolution One of the most important features of the Industrial Revolution was the various inventions made during the time that went on to change the course of history forever. Eli WhitneyÃ¢â¬â¢s invention of the cotton gin helped separate the cotton from its seed approximately fifty times faster than before. Jethro Hull, a farmer, invented a seed drill which planted grains very efficiently. Increase in the production of raw material meant that there was loads of raw material to be processed, especially in the case of textiles such as cotton. A weaver named James Hargreaves gave the much needed breakthrough by inventing the spinning jenny, a machine that spun many threads at once, though they were thick. Richard Awkright, invented the spinning frame, also known as the water frame. It spun thicker thread into thinner and stronger ones. It was Samuel CromptonÃ¢â¬â¢s spinning mule that made the large scale production of yarn possible. Edmund Cartwright invented the power loom that further incr eased the production of cloth and reduced labour costs as well. Inventions of machines led to the formation of factories for production of cloth. Mass production of cotton and cotton fabrics led to a great reduction in the prices. These inventions changed the socio-economic structure of England as weavers and workers were able to earn good wages and lead a better life.Ã Ã Although the cotton mills marked the beginning of the Industrial revolution, it is the invention of James WattÃ¢â¬â¢s steam engine that powered and continued it. The steam engine used the force of steam to power engines. Invention of this machine brought about many changes in England. Factory owners realised that they could now build factories where people lived and need not construct them it near a water source, as they did earlier. It was Abraham DarbyÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to cast iron in a coke-fueled furnace that enabled inventors like Thomas Newcomen to have his steam engines cast by Darby. Henry BessemerÃ¢â¬â¢s invention of the Bessemer Converter enabled inexpensive manufacture of steel abundantly. The transportation system was completely overhauled when steam powered trains and other locomotives were built. The transformation of roads and railways made travel and shipping of goods fairly comfortable and cheap.      The invention of the steam engine, usage on iron and steel in ships was useful in manufacturing ships that were much faster. Ships started voyaging through oceans which in turn increased trade even further. This period of intense industrialisation witnessed a major change in architecture and infrastructure. New towns came up that boasted of town halls, libraries, gardens, concert halls, etc.  Another important feature of the Industrial Revolution was the change in the socio-economic life of the people. As factories were set up and towns formed, people moved to towns in search of employment which made urbanization, a common feature of the Industrial Revolution. Historians are of the opinion that although some women stayed at home to look after the children, many worked in factories with their husbands. Sometimes, children were made to work in factories as well. In general, the Industrial Revolution improved the standard of living of the people as they were able to afford the basic necessities of life and could indulge in leisure activities during their free time. People read books, went on vacation, enjoyed concerts or spent days on the beach, educated themselves, etc. to pass their time. People started to take an active part in politics as well.  Why did the Industrial Revolution originate in England? Having read about the different features of the Industrial Revolution, it now becomes imperative to read about certain conditions that came together to set the scene for its inception. Colonies like India were a good source of raw material such as cotton for their factories in England. The colonies were good markets too as they sold their manufactured goods there. Being a supreme maritime power with one of the largest ships in the world, it was easy for England to transport the raw material and the finished products. A stable government at the centre, with few restrictions on the economy, helped the industry and commerce to thrive. Laws made by the government favoured the companies that set up factories and businesses. Natural resources such as coal and iron were available in abundance to be used in factories. Streams and rivers in England were used to generate power and served as a medium of transportation of goods and raw materials. England, to begin with, was a prosperous country and people had extra money to spend on other things besides the basic needs of food, clothing and shelter. Impact of the Industrial Revolution The Industrial Revolution became the most noteworthy ensemble of social, cultural and economic change that affected human history. Let us discuss some of them. There was a tremendous increase in population during the Industrial Revolution as the standard of living improved and fewer people died due to diseases. The Industrial Revolution led to capitalism, that is, the business was owned privately and operated primarily for profit. The industrial revolution divided the society into different classes the factory owners who owned the factory and the workers who worked for him. The owners of the factories exploited the workers to maximise their profit. New cities and towns came up as the factory owners established factories closer to where they lived. People who worked in factories had to leave their houses and shift to these places, often with their families. The Industrial Revolution completely changed the lives of the workers. From being a craftsperson who worked using hand tools, he was merely reduced to a machine operator. Weavers and other craftsmen who tried to make a living by making goods at home found it difficult to sell their products as their hand-made goods were more expensive than the machine-made ones. The Industrial Revolution gave rise to imperialism. England was faced with two problems during the Industrial revolution Ã¢â¬â Procuring of cheap raw materials and a market for their manufactured goods. They solved these problems by gaining political and economic control over weaker countries.  Though the Industrial Revolution began in England, it gradually spread to the other countries of the world as well. Imperialism Industrialisation stirred the aspirations of England. They wanted to maximise the profit of their industries. England wanted resources to fuel their production as well as a market to sell their goods. Weaker countries such as India were the perfect target. This policy of England to acquire political, economic and social control over a weaker country is known as imperialism. Imperialism was one of the worst impacts of industrialisation. England sourced the raw materials of their products from these countries and sold the manufactured products in these countries itself at exorbitant prices. Imperialism involves the use of power, military or otherwise to exercise control over the weaker country.  Imperialism destroyed the culture and the local industries of the colonies. Inexpensive foreign goods destroyed the markets of local indigenous products. No effort was made to modernize the colonies. Agriculture was also affected as the imperialists allowed the colonies to grow those crops that were beneficial to them, whether or not it was conducive to the locals. We shall study about the British policies and plans in India later in the book. Peep into the Past Iron Bridge The WorldÃ¢â¬â¢s first Iron Bridge built on River Severnin England is one of the most famous industrial monuments in Britain. Shropshire, the area in which it was built was famous for its coal deposits. The steep Severn gorge posed a problem for transportation of people and goods. Architect Thomas Pritchard suggested ironmaster John Wilenson make the iron bridge. Though Wilkenson started the project in 1777, the iron bridge was completed by Abraham Darby in 1779. It was opened to the public on January 1, 1781. The bridge was used for over 150 years before it was shut down for vehicles in 1934. The Iron Bridge was designated as an ancient monument. It is now a World Heritage Site.  http://www.britishmuseum.org/research/publications/online_research_catalogues/paper_money/paper_money_of_england__wales/the_industrial_revolution.aspx  World Socities Ã¢â¬â Mckay Hill Ã¢â¬â pg Ã¢â¬â 747, 748, 749  http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/151458/Abraham-Darby#ref219821  HOLT, Human Legacy, Page 634, 635, 636, 637  World Socities Ã¢â¬â Mckay Hill Ã¢â¬â pg Ã¢â¬â 750-751-752  http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/143809/Samuel-Crompton  http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/151458/Abraham-Darby  http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/642887/Eli-Whitney  http://www.britishmuseum.org/research/publications/online_research_catalogues/paper_money/paper_money_of_england__wales/the_industrial_revolution/the_industrial_revolution_2.aspx  HOLT, Human Legacy, page Ã¢â¬â 649, 650, 651, and http://www.britishmuseum.org/research/publications/online_research_catalogues/paper_money/paper_money_of_england__wales/the_industrial_revolution/the_industrial_revolution_3.aspx  HOLT, Human Legacy, pages Ã¢â¬â 633, 634, 635  http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/287086/Industrial-Revolution  http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/283988/imperialism
Monday, August 19, 2019
Out of all the growing problems in the world, the massive accumulation of garbage seems to be the least of the peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s worries. Countless landfills are being satiated by trash of all shapes, sizes and composition; many now being paved over to serve as foundation for housing, airports, businesses, etc. If the situation were as simple to resolve as paving over the putrescent landfills, then there wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t be debates or research about the environmental effects of pollution associated with improper discarding of waste materials. A majority of the types of waste can be recycled, but at what cost? Many will argue that recycling is the only way to eliminate such landfills and protect the environment from further damage. Several environmentalists groups and politicians seek to make recycling a legal responsibility, while the technology for recycling has progressed in recent years, the ratio of cost to practicality has remained essentially the same. If recycling were to be man dated, then there would have to be a paradigm shift in the circulation of products, from creation to redistribution, in order to make regulations practical. In previous generations, recycling was very limited in its capabilities and effectiveness. Several studies from the time period actually support the claim that more trash was produced than salvaged. The collection of a stack of papers left behind mounds of gloves, trash bags, food wrappers and water bottles that couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t be used. With that in mind, it is completely understandable as to why groups of people in the past were against salvaging materials. Since then, the ability to process raw or reused materials has increased tenfold. Now, almost everything from wastewater to the toughest polymers can be recycl... ...law wrapped around them. Without the combined contributions of all three of these major groups, the system will continue to be flawed, while money, resources and time, shall continue to be wasted trying to salvage from an ever growing junk pile. If any laws need to be emplaced then they should be limited to an initiating push, much like the ignition on a vehicle. Once the trifecta begins to pick up speed, any regulations used to propel the movement should be immediately relinquished and replaced with maintenance and education in order to promote a self-perpetuating behavior. Works Cited Esterl, Mike. Ã¢â¬Å"Plastic Recycling Falls Short as Too Few Do It.Ã¢â¬ Wall Street Journal. 19 Aug 2011: B.1. SIRS Issues Researcher. Web. 01 Apr 2012. Koch, Wendy. Ã¢â¬Å"Cities Turn Deeper Shades of Green.Ã¢â¬ USA TODAY. 30 Jun 2011: A.3. SIRS Issue Researcher. Web. 06 Mar 2012.
Sunday, August 18, 2019
Symbols and Symbolism - A Comparison of Nicknames in A Dolls House and Major Barbara :: comparison compare contrast essays
Symbolism of Nicknames in A Doll's House and Major Barbara Ã The use of nicknames in literature is an important tool in which the author can provide insight into the attitudes of the characters toward each other and to provide illumination as to the nature of specific characters. Two such pieces of literature in which these attitudes and illumination can be evidenced are A Doll's House by Henrik Ibsen and Major Barbara by Bernard Shaw. The attitudes of the characters in A Doll's House, more specifically Torvald Helmer and the maid Anne-Marie, toward Nora can be evidenced with the names by which she is referred. In Major Barbara, the names by which the characters call each other not only show their personal attitudes toward each other, but also provide classical reference by which we can better understand the characters. Ã In A Doll's House, Torvald Helmer's attitude toward his wife Nora can be seen in the ways in which he refers to her. In line 11 of the first act, we come across the first instance of Torvald's bird references to Nora with "Is that my little lark twittering out there?" This reference is the first of many in which Torvald refers to Nora as a lark. Often this referencing is preceded by diminutive terms such as "little" and "sweet, little." Torvald also refers to Nora as a squirrel, a spendthrift, a songbird, and a goose, these terms also preceded with a diminutive. The significance of this nicknaming is to show Torvald's attitude toward Nora. Torvald sees Nora as small, sweet, unobtrusive and therefore easily controlled. This position is one he would like Nora to continue to occupy. In line 257, Torvald refers to Nora as "my richest treasure" denoting his attitude toward her as his possession. Ã Nora's nurse, and the nurse of her children as well, Anne-Marie, shows her attitude of Nora as well. In the beginning of the second act, we find Nora in a conversation with Anne-Marie in which Anne-Marie refers to Nora as "Miss Nora," "little Nora," and "poor little Nora." It seems to everyone that Nora not only acts as a child, but is seen as one as well. It is here we realize it is not only the man being overbearing and keeping the woman in what he sees as her rightful position, but the maid also contributes to the indoctrination.
Election of 1900 Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The presidential election of 1900 was between candidates William McKinley, William Bryan, John Wooley, Eugene Debs. Although the race only really consisted of McKinley and Bryan it was still a close race by far. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã McKinley was born in Niles, Ohio, on January 29, 1843, the seventh child of William and Nancy Allison McKinley. Young McKinley grew up a serious boy, possessed of a quiet determination to succeed. He attended school in Poland, Ohio, and then went to Allegheny College in Meadville, Pennsylvania. William Byran was born March 19, 1860. He was unsuccessful candidate for President of the United States, at 36 he was the youngest person ever nominated for that office by a major political party. He was nominated a total of three times but never attained the office. His statue represents Iowa in Statuary Hall in the United States Capitol Building The campaign itself was largely a replay of the race in 1896- with Bryan campaigning rigorously and McKinley not venturing from the White House. The issue of currency and silver was no longer relevant, and instead the campaign issues were whether the United States should give independence for the territories received in its war with Spain. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Although not a landslide shift comparable to election swings in the 20th century, McKinley's victory ended the pattern of close popular margins that had characterized elections since the Civil War. McKinley received 7,218,491 votes (51.7 percent) to Bryan's 6,356,734 votes (45.5 percent)-a gain for the Republicans of 114,000 votes over their total in 1896. McKinley received nearly twice the number electoral votes than Bryan did. In congressional elections that year, Republicans held fifty-five Senate seats to thirty-one for the Democrats; and the McKinley's party captured 197 House seats compared to 151 for the Democrats. Indeed, the Republican Party had become the majority political party in the nation After four years in office, McKinley's popularity had risen, primarily because of his image as the victorious commander-in-chief of the Spanish-American War. McKinley was elected as president of 1901. This was his second term as president.
Saturday, August 17, 2019
EXPERIMENT REPORT (PREPARATION OF CdS) Experiment Purposes 1. To master the proper operations as well as the suitable situations of atmospheric pressure filtration, vacuum filtration, centrifugal separation & precipitation washing 2. To understand the relation between precipitation state % precipitating conditions 3. To learn the way to examine whether reactants are fully precipitated 4. To learn the principals of powder material synthesizing through room temperature solid phase method & liquid phase method directional growing rystal form of precipitation Experiment Principals 1. the process of precipitation forming constitutive crystal ion accumulating growing forming nuclei sediment particals amorphous precipitation crystal nuclei 2. the classification of precipitations amorphous precipitation, particle diameter smaller than 0. 02 m, ex. Fe(OH)3. the hydroxide of metals of high oxidation number would grow directionally with low rate, but accumulate very fast, forming amorphous prec ipitation curd-like precipitation, particle diameter 0. 02~0. 1 m, ex.AgCl crystal form of precipitation, diameter 0. 1~1 m, ex. BaSO4. Inorganic salts with strong polarizability grow directionally with high rate, forming crystal form of precipitation 3. CdS is a semiconductor material widely use. It can be preparated through room temperature solid phase method & liquid phase method & gas phase method. Use CdSO4 and NaS as reactants, through both room temperature solid phase method & liquid phase method to prepare CdS(s). Compare the two ways of preparation and their influence on product separation. Reactions as ollows, CdSO4+2NaS=CdS+Na2SO4 Chemical reagents: CdSO4(s), Na2S(s), 0. 3M HCL(aq), 0. 5M CdSO4(aq), 1M BaCl2(aq), widely pH tests strips, mortar, centrifugal text tube, bake oven, centrifuge, vacuum filtration apparatus, etc. Experiment Steps And Phenomena Room temperature solid phase method 1. according to the theoretically volume of product should be 1. 44g, weigh certain amount of CdSO4(s) and NaS(s), mix in dried mortal, then grind for 10-20 min. | In the mortal, White particles slowly turned into orange powders, bad egg smell is output. | 2. he product is transferred to a beaker and washed with distilled water for 3 times, until the supernatant is tested pH
Friday, August 16, 2019
An Era of Smart Phones and Dumb People You spot them immediately. They're gathered around the swing set Eke moths to an open flame; not talking, Just looking down at what's In their small hands. There's around four of them, appearing to be first graders or so, testing away twice as fast as you ever could, completely oblivious to everything around them. Pausing for a second, you stop to wonder, Ã¢â¬Å"Whatever happened to actually using the swing set? Ã¢â¬ Technology is like a fine wine; as it matures and ages, it becomes better and better, making it appeal to large crowds of people.Yet what happens If one has too much wine? They become drunk. Just like an alcoholic, the next generation appears as if they are addicted to this modern technology, and that is not be such a good thing as people think It Is. The kids seem to be gradually losing one of the most delicate and treasured things on this planet: human Interaction. For example, let me pose a simple question, when was the last t ime you have a game night with your family, or any other time that was solely devoted to your nearest and dearest? Some will answer years while others, mere days.Twenty-first century based females tend to go to their own sections of the house with an electronic of their choice, whether that may be a Kindle, phone, Pod, Tablet, you name it, instead of hanging out with their family. Young children observe this and brand It as the norm. Well, why shouldn't they? Aren't we the ones at blame for this? The ones they look to in order to know how to interact, to act with others? Look at the older population, the elderly, in your community; they will smile at you through car windows while parked at red lights or ask you how you're doing while o'er both standing In the grocery line at your local supermarket.Sadly, this seems to be a rare thing to stumble across these days in all of us young people. Back when I was a kid, If I wanted to play a game I would go find my brother and we would have to make one up ourselves. That's right; we had to use our imaginations, just like our dear friend Sponge taught us to. But now, with Inventions such as the Leaped and Manitoba, instead of making up their own games, children have the ability to download over three hundred and twenty-five APS with a push of a button.Along with these APS, as if they weren't already enough, the youngsters can record videos, take pictures with the two cameras available, listen to music, and access an internet made just for them. At their age, I had sidewalk chalk and a stinking Jump rope for crying out loud. Yet why would they choose such simple, ordinary things when they have hours of guaranteed entertainment right at their little fingertips, within those many APS? Snatching away. Ah yes, now I've remembered.You know all those outdoor toy commercials that make kids want to explore the great outside? Me neither. Outside: The brilliant archenemy of the indoors. It's a place to be loud, rambunctious, and l east of all quiet. In a nutshell, it's a child's heaven on Earth, or should be. But instead of actually going outdoors to play, kids tend to stay inside claiming it's too hot, too cold, too windy, tooÃ¢â¬ ¦ Too anything really. So instead they sit on the couch watching mindless television shows while withering away into nothing more or less than lazy, couch potatoes.If the patterns keep up we may eventually all turn into mild forms of the characters in the beloved movie Wall-E: grotesquely fat, genealogy obsessed humans, who don't know how to live without an electronic in one hand and a remote in another. This sickens and saddens me all at once. Now, am I declaring that all technology is bad and it should be banished from Earth never to be spoken of or seen again? That we should Just absentmindedly convert back to the ways our ancestors and live without modern conveniences? Of course I'm not!I'm merely asking you to take a step back and look at how much technology you use on a dail y basis, even if it's Just making a call on your cell phone r turning on the TV to unwind after a long day at work. I simply don't want a world where the next generation becomes engulfed and overwhelmed by the sheer amount of technology being shoved down their throats as soon as they are able to walk and talk. The relationships we construct with others should be cherished and preserved by interacting with each other face-to-face every rather than Just testing each other. I'm asking you to get off the couch and be social.Go to Struck with a few friends, go shopping with them, or maybe even volunteer and meet new people. Find the balance in your life; don't let technology control it. The same goes for your children, sure you can give them a Nintendo or a Tablet, but remember to shoo them outside every once in a while to play. A child's imagination or anyone's really, can't be replaced with APS and computers, it's Just impossible. They can be compressed, though, if they don't have a ch ance to grow. A close friend once told me, Ã¢â¬Å"We are living in the era of smart phones and dumb people,Ã¢â¬ and if you think about it enough, we are. We really, truly are.
Thursday, August 15, 2019
This narrative will be investigating the political and royal policies of early modern Europe and it's reasoning behind preferring (and insisting) that only male royal blood lines should maintain the throne. I shall be researching how Queen Elizabeth 1st was able to take the throne as a single female, as well as (despite never being able to take the throne herself) the years that her sons ruled is now known as the Ã¢â¬Ëage of Catherine De Medici'. It will be necessary to look at religious opinions and political laws, as well as literary opinions from the 16th and early 17th century (in some cases earlier) across early modern Europe, England and Scotland, regarding women and their place in society and how that relates to women in positions of power Early modern Europe was segregated by extreme religious fault lines. With England, Scotland, Germany, The Netherlands and France fighting (both politically and literally) for superioty of their chosen religion, these were; Calvinism, Lutheranism, Roman Catholicism and Protestantism, with a small minority of Anglican followers also. The majority of Spain, Portugal and Italy remained virtually wholly Roman Catholic, which lead to many wars and disputes with bordering nations. The Royal policy of the time was to use marriage to cement literal boarders between neighbouring countries in an effort to create great nations, and also to make intangible connections that cemented power between nations creating beneficial alliances. Political and social opinion of women at the time was largely due to the writings of St. Paul in the New Testament regarding Adam and Eve, and how Eve carried out the first human sin, disobeyed God and tempted Adam with the apple. This therefore made Eve responsible for the fall of mankind, and left women being seen as the source of all evil and sin. Coupling this with Aristotle's premise that a woman was an inferior version of the perfect male form, meant that the opinion of women was not something to be fought against, it was simply irrefutable fact. Because of this, religious political and social opinion of women in early modern Europe, women were only seen as valuable for their usefulness in connecting families through marriage or continuing family legacies through childbirth. Therefore families could effectively marry their daughters off like chattel. Women in early modern Europe were seen as feeble and weak minded, unable to be decision makers, and think for themselves. They (women) by religious opinion were created by God for man. Therefore giving man the right to rule them. As Martin Luther put so plainly; Ã¢â¬ËWomen are created for no other purpose than to serve men and be their helpers. If women grow weary or even die while bearing children, that doesn't harm anything. Let them bear children to death; they are created for that. Ã¢â¬Ë Even women in positions of power were aware that they were not comparable to men. As Queen Elizabeth recognised, Ã¢â¬ËI know I have the body of a weak and feeble woman, but I have the heart and stomach of a King'1 Queen Elizabeth the first, was arguably one of the most famous female rulers in our history, yet her road to power was a difficult one. Elizabeth's rule while she was alive, and even after her death, has been shadowed by questions regarding the legitamacy of her right to the throne. The Catholic populace never fully accepted her, as her father Henry VIII broke with the Catholic Church to divorce his first wife: Catherine of Aragon to marry Anne Boleyn (Elizabeth's mother). However Henry VIII and Catherine (his first wife) had a daughter Mary, Henry VIII went on to have Elizabeth with his second wife and a son: Edward with Jane Seymour his 3rd wife, and despite Catholic beliefs regarding divorce, (which made Elizabeth illegitimate, but not Mary or Edward) the only surety was that Henry's male heir was going to take the throne first. After Edward took the crown Mary was to follow closely succeeded by Elizabeth. The only other candidate that could possibly take a rightful place over Elizabeth was Mary Stuart, who was currently Queen of Scotland and Queen of France (by marriage), and with the ever looming threat of a two-pronged assault on England by the French and the Scottish, Elizabeth became the necessary and logical choice as the English people were at the time seen to be more Ã¢â¬Ënationalistic than catholic' (and an exceptional ruler she went on to be), managing to influence both Roman Catholic's and Protestant's into a compromise, which arguably stopped England from falling into a religious war, as was the case in France. But it also conveyed to her public that she was able to accept both faiths and allow them to coexist in the efforts of peace, a feat that had not been accomplished so logically or peacefully by her male predecessor's. France was plagued by its own political difficulties and religious disputes, and having a female singularly ruling was intolerable to them, and with the medieval Ã¢â¬ËSalic Law' still in force (of which some of its policies are still in use today) the French were able to regulate who took to the throne and who maintained power. Salic law was clear, however; it decreed a purely French solution. (Elsewhere, in countries where Salic law did not apply Ã¢â¬â Scotland, England, SpainÃ¢â¬ ¦ women undoubtedly had the right to succeed to the crown, although their rights in other areas were very limited. )2 As Queen Elizabeth found herself when trying to deal with her Generals and war strategists, many of whom ignored her input refusing to consider that she would have any useful insights into battle planning. Salic law was particularly relevant to Catherine De Medici, as it kept her from the throne after the death of her husband. Catherine then put her sons on throne, where she was virtually able to rule by defacto for many years, due to her sheer iron will and the strong maternal hold she had over her sons Ã¢â¬â even when her son Francis II died, his wife Queen Mary (Mary Stuart, Queen of Scots) fled back to Scotland rather than be dominated by her mother-in-law. Even with Queen Elizabeth being in power in England, and Catherine De Medici's virtual rule in France there were still many who felt that female rule was unlawful. But this started a debate in the early 16th century as to whether female's born of Royal blood and extensively educated were able to overcome the short fallings of their gender. Were Queen Elizabeth and her sister Queen Mary, as well as Mary Queen of Scots and Catherine De Medici able to break these notions and change history? To conclude as to whether women were acceptable Queens able to fully rule, the answer is clearly no. Female rule in early modern Europe was unacceptable. Men did see women as more feeble, both physically and mentally, and assumed that they were automatically superior. Women were nothing more than the child bearers, a point exemplified by marriages that were able to be absolved if no children were born (regardless of religion). It would appear that one of the factors of fearing female rule would be felt by the current King preparing to hand power to his daughter, the King (from any nation) would be aware that opinion of females was poor, and that the new Ã¢â¬Ëqueen' would need to take a husband to guide and assist her. Which then leads to the question of whom should marry the future queen? Her right to power would automatically revert to her husband Ã¢â¬â very probably a Prince or King from another nation, which would leave the current King to foresee the fall of his Kingdom to a foreign land. France kept with the extremely old salic law, that was first made policy in medieval time's to make sure that only males of French blood from royal lines could ascend to the throne. But it would seem as was the case across Europe and England that Salic law, and English/Catholic opinion and preference on female rule only counted if it suited. If the alternative ruler was unpalatable (for instance Mary Queen of Scots) then the nobles and governments would find alternative methods to crown their ruler of choice. The debate of female rule was never about what was best for France, England or whomever, but quite plainly about those in power keeping that position for as long as possible at whatever the cost. Historic and modern literature written about Queen Elizabeth I, Catherine De Medici, Queen Mary I and Mary Queen of Scots can paint a picture of a very manipulative, autocratic and sometimes capricious class of Queen, but with the severe adversities they faced I feel that as independents they were utilizing their femininity, as well as their individual strong wills and education to keep a firm control. These famous rulers from our history did bring about change, and they forever altered the face of Royalty as well as assisting (even if only selectively) the view of women across the world.
Wednesday, August 14, 2019
Many believe Freud to be the father of modern psychiatry and psychology and the only psychiatrist of any worth. He is certainly the most well known figure, perhaps because sex played such a prominent role in his system. There are other psychologists, however, whose theories demand respectful consideration. Erik Erickson, born Eric Homburger, whose theories while not as titillating as FreudÃ¢â¬â¢s, are just as sound. This paper will compare the two great men and their systems. In addition, this paper will argue that Freud offers the more useful foundation for understanding the Jenny MastersonÃ¢â¬â¢s confused psyche. Sigmund Freud showed signs of independence and brilliance well before entering the University of Vienna in 1873. He had a prodigious memory and loved reading to the point of running himself into debt at various bookstores. Among his favorite authors were Goethe, Shakespeare, Kant, Hegel and Nietzsche. To avoid disruption of his studies, he often ate in his room. After medical school, Freud began a private practice, specializing in nervous disorders. He was soon faced with patients whose disorders made no neurological sense. For example, a patient might have lost feeling in his foot with no evidence to any sensory nerve damage. Freud wondered if the problem could be psychological rather than physiological. Dr. Freud evolved as he treated patients and analyzed himself. He recorded his assessment and expounded his theories in 24 volumes published between 1888 and 1939. Although his first book, The Interpretation of Dreams, sold only 600 copies in its first eight years of publication, his ideas gradually began to attract faithful followers and students Ã¢â¬â along with a great number of critics. While exploring the possible psychological roots of nervous disorders, Freud spent several months in Paris, studying with Jean Charcot, a French neurologist from whom he learned hypnosis. On return to Vienna, Freud began to hypnotize patients and encouraging them while under hypnosis to speak openly about themselves and the onset of their symptoms. Often the patients responded freely, and upon reviewing their past, became quite upset and agitated. By this process, some saw their symptoms lessened or banished entirely. It was in this way that Freud discovered what he termed the Ã¢â¬Å"unconscious. Piecing together his patientsÃ¢â¬â¢ accounts of their lives, he decided that the loss of feeling in oneÃ¢â¬â¢s hand might be caused by, say, the fear of touching oneÃ¢â¬â¢s genitals; blindness or deafness might be caused by the fear of hearing or seeing something that might arouse grief or distress. Over time, Freud saw hundreds of patients. He soon recognized that hypnosis was not as helpful as he had first hoped. He thus pioneered a new technique termed Ã¢â¬Å"free association. Ã¢â¬ Patients were told to relax and say whatever came to mind, no matter how mortifying or irrelevant. Freud believed that free association produced a chain of thought that was linked to the unconscious, and often painful, memories of childhood. Freud called this process psychoanalysis. Underlying FreudÃ¢â¬â¢s psychoanalytic perception of personality was his belief that the mind was akin to an iceberg Ã¢â¬â most of it was hidden from view. The conscious awareness is the part of the iceberg that is above the surface but below the surface is a much larger unconscious region that contains feelings, wishes and memories of which persons are largely unaware. Some thoughts are stored temporarily in a preconscious area, from where they can be retrieved at will. However, Freud was more interested in the mass of thought and feeling that are repressed Ã¢â¬â forcibly blocked from conscious thought because it would be too painful to acknowledge. Freud believed that these repressed materials unconsciously exert a powerful influence on behavior and choices. Freud believed that dreams and slips of tongue and pen were windows to his patientÃ¢â¬â¢s unconscious. Intrusive thoughts or seemingly trivial errors while reading, writing and speaking suggested to Freud that what is said and done reflects the working of the unconscious. Jokes especially were an outlet for expressing repressed sexual and aggressive tendencies. For Freud, nothing was accidental. Freud believed that human personality, expressed emotions, strivings, and beliefs arise from a conflict between the aggressive, pleasure-seeking, biological impulses and the social restraints against their expression. This conflict between expression and repression, in ways that bring the achievement of satisfaction without punishment or guilt, drives the development of personality. Freud divided the elements of that conflict into three interacting systems: the id, ego and superego. Freud did not propose a new, na? ve anatomy, but saw these terms as Ã¢â¬Å"useful aids to understandingÃ¢â¬ the mindÃ¢â¬â¢s dynamics. The id is a reservoir of unconscious psychic energy that continually toils to satisfy basic drives to survive, reproduce and aggress. The id operates on the pleasure principle Ã¢â¬â if unconstrained, it seeks instantaneous gratification. It is exemplified by a new born child who cries out for satisfaction the moment it feels hungry, tired, uncomfortable Ã¢â¬â oblivious to conditions, wishes, or expectations of his environment. As the child learns to cope with the real world, his ego develops. The ego operates on the reality principle, which seeks to superintend the idÃ¢â¬â¢s impulses in realistic ways to accomplish pleasure in practical ways, avoiding pain in the process. The ego contains partly conscious perceptions, thoughts, judgements, and memories. It is the personality executive. The ego arbitrates between impulsive demands of the id, the restraining demands of the superego and the real-life demands of the external world. Around age 4 or 5, a childÃ¢â¬â¢s ego recognizes the demands of the newly emerging superego. The superego is the voice of conscience that forces the ego to consider not only the real but also the ideal. Its focus is on how one should behave. The superego develops as the child internalizes the morals and values of parents and culture, thereby providing both a sense of right, wrong and a set of ideals. It strives for perfection and judges our actions, producing positive feelings of pride or negative feelings of guilt. Someone with an exceptionally strong superego may be continually upright and socially correct yet ironically harbor guilt-, another with a weak superego may be wantonly self-indulgent and remorseless. Because the superegoÃ¢â¬â¢s demands often oppose the idÃ¢â¬â¢s, the ego struggles to reconcile the two. The chaste student who is sexually attracted to someone and joins a volunteer organization to work alongside the desired person, satisfies both id and superego. Analysis of his patientsÃ¢â¬â¢ histories convinced Freud that personality forms during a personÃ¢â¬â¢s first few years. Again and again his patientsÃ¢â¬â¢ symptoms seemed rooted in unresolved conflicts from early childhood. He concluded that children pass through a series of psychosexual stages during which the idÃ¢â¬â¢s pleasure-seeking energies focus on distinct pleasure-sensitive areas of the body he called Ã¢â¬Å"erogenous zones. Ã¢â¬ During the Ã¢â¬Å"oral stage,Ã¢â¬ usually the first 18 months, an infantÃ¢â¬â¢s sensual pleasure focuses on sucking, biting, and chewing. During the Ã¢â¬Å"anal stage,Ã¢â¬ from about 18 months to 3 years, the sphincter muscles become sensitive and controllable, and bowel and bladder retention and elimination become a source of gratification. During the phallic stage, from roughly ages 3 to 6 years, the pleasure zones shift to the genitals. Freud believed that during this stage boys seek genital stimulation and develop unconscious sexual desires for their mothers along with jealousy and hatred for their father, whom they consider a rival. Boys feel unrecognized guilt for their rivalry and a fear that their father will punish them, such as by castration. This collection of feelings he named the Ã¢â¬Å"Oedipus ComplexÃ¢â¬â¢ after the Greek legend of Oedipus, who unknowingly killed his father and married his mother. Originally Freud hypothesized that females experienced a parallel Ã¢â¬Å"Electra complex. Ã¢â¬ However, in time Freud changed his mind, saying, (1931, p. 229): Ã¢â¬Å"It is only in the male child that we find the fateful combination of love for the one parent and simultaneous hatred for the other as a rival. Ã¢â¬ Children eventually cope with these threatening feelings by repressing them then identifying with and trying to become like the rival parent. Through this identification process childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s superegos gain strength as they incorporate many of their parentsÃ¢â¬â¢ values. Freud believed that identification with the same-sex parent provides our gender identity Ã¢â¬â the sense of being male or female. With their sexual feelings repressed and redirected, children enter a latency stage. Freud maintained that during this latency period, extending from around age 6 to puberty, sexuality is dormant and children play mostly with peers of the same sex. At puberty, latency gives way to the final stage Ã¢â¬â the genital stage Ã¢â¬â as youths begin to experience sexual feelings towards others. In FreudÃ¢â¬â¢s view, maladaptive behavior in the adult results from conflicts unresolved during earlier psychosexual stages. At any point in the oral, anal, or phallic stages, strong conflict can lock, or fixate, the personÃ¢â¬â¢s pleasure-seeking energies in that stage. Thus people who were either orally overindulged or deprived, perhaps by abrupt, early weaning, might fixate at the oral stage. Orally fixated adults are said to exhibit either passive dependence (like that of a nursing infant) or an exaggerated denial of this dependence, perhaps by acting tough and macho. They might continue to smoke or eat excessively to satisfy their needs for oral gratification. Those who never quite resolve their anal conflict, a desire to eliminate at will that combats the demands of toilet training, may be both messy and disorganized (Ã¢â¬ anal expulsiveÃ¢â¬ ) or highly controlled and compulsively neat (Ã¢â¬ anal-retentiveÃ¢â¬ ). To live in social groups, impulses cannot be freely acted on They must be controlled in logical, socially acceptable ways. When the ego fears losing control of the inner struggle between the demands of the id and the superego, the result is anxiety. Anxiety, said Freud, is the price paid for civilization. Unlike specific fears, the dark cloud of anxiety is unfocused. Anxiety is therefore, difficult to cope with, as when we feel unsettled but have no basis for feeling that way. Freud proposed that the ego protects itself against anxiety with ego defense mechanisms. Defense mechanisms reduce or redirect anxiety in various ways, but always by distorting reality. Although Freud was known to change his mind, he was deeply committed to his ideas and principles, even in the face of harsh criticism. Although controversial, his ideas attracted followers who formed a dedicated inner circle. From time to time, sparks would fly and a member would leave or be outcast. Even the ideas of the outcasts, however, reflected FreudÃ¢â¬â¢s influence. Erik Erikson was one of these outcasts. He agreed with Freud that development proceeds through a series of critical stages. But he believed the stages were psychosocial, not psychosexual. Erikson also argued that lifeÃ¢â¬â¢s developmental stages encompass the whole life span According to Erikson, a crisis is equivalent to a turning point in life, where there is the opportunity to progress or regress. At these turning points, a person can either resolve conflicts or fail to adequately resolve the developmental task. Delving further into these differences, Erikson contended that each stage of life has its own psychosocial task. Young children wrestle with issues of trust, then autonomy, then initiative. School-age children develop competence, the sense that they are able and productive human beings. In adolescence, the task is to synthesize past, present, and future possibilities into a clearer sense of self. Adolescents wonder: Ã¢â¬Å"Who am I as an individual? What do I want to do with my life? What values should I live by? What do I believe in? Ã¢â¬ Erikson calls this quest to more deeply define a sense of self the adolescentÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"search for identity. Ã¢â¬ To refine their sense of identity, adolescents usually try out different Ã¢â¬Å"selvesÃ¢â¬ in different situations Ã¢â¬â perhaps acting out one self at home, another with friends and still another at school and work. If two of these situations overlap Ã¢â¬â like when a teenager brings a friend home from school Ã¢â¬â the discomfort can be considerable. The teen may ask, Ã¢â¬Å"Which self is the real me? Which self should I be? Ã¢â¬ Often, this role confusion gets resolved by the gradual reshaping of a self-definition that unifies the various selves into a consistent and comfortable sense of who one is Ã¢â¬â an identity. But not always, Erikson believes that some adolescents forge their identity early, simply by taking on their parentsÃ¢â¬â¢ values and expectations. Others may adopt a negative identity that defines itself in opposition to parents and society but in conformity with a particular peer group, complete perhaps with the shaved head or multi-colored coif. Still others never quite seem to find themselves or to develop strong commitments. For most, the struggle for identity continues past the teen years and reappears at turning points during adult life. During the first social stage, trust versus mistrust, an infantÃ¢â¬â¢s basic task is to develop a sense of trust in self, others, and the world. The infant needs to count on others and develop a sense of acceptance and security. This sense of trust is learned by being caressed and cared for. From EriksonÃ¢â¬â¢s viewpoint, if the significant others in an infantÃ¢â¬â¢s life provide the necessary love, the infant develops a sense of trust. When love is absent, the result is a general sense of mistrust in others. Clearly, infants who feel accepted are in a more favorable position to successfully meet future developmental crises than are those who do not receive adequate nurturing. However, Erikson postulates that since development is a ongoing lifelong process, personality is not fixed at any given time. Events, circumstances, and social relationships are dynamic and changing. Thus, even a child who emerged from the first stage of life with a strong sense of trust may become mistrustful and cy! nical if betrayed in later social relationships. Hence, personality is not viewed as fixed by the fifth year of life, as Freud believed, but remains fluid throughout the life span. Between the ages of one and three (FreudÃ¢â¬â¢s anal stage), children are developing a growing sense of control over their lives. They can now walk, run, climb, and get into all sorts of mischief. A sense of autonomy develops as they learn new skills and achieve a feeling of control over their environment. Thus EriksonÃ¢â¬â¢s titles this stage Autonomy versus Shame and Doubt. During this period, some parents, out of concern or impatience with their childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s progress may intervene and do things that the children should be doing by themselves. Other parents may demand a level of competence of which their children are not yet physically and/or emotionally capable. In either case, these children begin to doubt their own abilities and feel ashamed when they fail to live up to parental expectations. Children who fail to master the tasks of establishing some control over themselves and coping with the world around them develop a sense of shame and feelings of doubt about their capabilities During the next stage, Initiative versus Guilt, which takes place during the preschool years (ages 4 to 6 Ã¢â¬â FreudÃ¢â¬â¢s phallic stage), children seek to find out how much they can do. According to Erikson, the basic task of preschool years is to establish a sense of competence and initiative. Preschool children begin to initiate many of their own activities as they become physically and psychologically ready to engage in pursuits of their own choosing. If they are allowed realistic freedom to choose their own activities and make some of their own decisions, they tend to develop a positive orientation characterized by confidence to initiate actions and follow through on them. On the other hand, if they are unduly restricted, or if their choices are ridiculed, they tend to experience a sense of guilt and ultimately withdraw from taking an active and initiating stance. By the age of six, the child should enter elementary school. It is during this age that the stage of Industry versus Inferiority occurs. During the ensuing five years, the most important events in the childÃ¢â¬â¢s life revolve around setting and accomplishing goals related to school situations. When children are successful in mastering the many behaviors expected of them during these years, they develop feelings of competency and a sense of industry. They may express such feelings as: Ã¢â¬Å"I can do anything if I just work hard enough. Children who encounter failure during the early grades may experience severe handicaps later on. A child with learning problems may begin to feel like a worthless person. Such feelings may drastically affect his or her relationships with peers, which are also vital at this time. During the adolescent years, teens experience Identity versus Role Confusion. Typically, adolescents feel they are on center stage and everyone is looking at them. They are often highly critical of themselves and feel that others are equally critical. Their thoughts often turn inward. They look at themselves and question whether or not they measure up to their peers. They also begin thinking about lifelong goals and careers, wondering whether they will make it in the world of the adult. Their ruthless self-appraisal is often beneficial. It results in the development of values, social attitudes, and standards. This inward focus appears to be necessary for the development of a firm sense of self and of broader roles in the social order. During the stage of Intimacy versus Isolation, adolescence is now behind the individual and the early adult years loom ahead. Energies are focused on building careers, establishing lasting social ties, and achieving then maintaining intimate relationships. Marriage or cohabitation creates new demands on the individual Ã¢â¬â sharing, compromising, and relinquishing social mobility to some degree. Also, many young adults begin having children and raising families. Those who were unsuccessful in resolving their identity crises may find themselves isolated from mainstream society and unable to maintain healthy intimate relationships. The years between the ages of 35 and 60 are a time for learning how to live creatively with others; this period can be the most productive stage of an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s life. According to Erikson, the stimulus for continued growth in middle age is the crisis of Generatively versus Stagnation or Self-Absorption. By generatively, Erikson meant not just fostering children, but being productive in a broad sense Ã¢â¬â for example through creative pursuits in careers, in leisure-time activities, in volunteer work or caring for others. Two important qualities of the productive adult are the ability to love well and the ability to work well. Adults who fail to achieve a sense of productivity begin to stagnate, which s a form of psychological death. The years of maturity are typified by the stage of Integrity of the Self versus Despair. This is the most illuminating stage of a personÃ¢â¬â¢s life. If all the crises of earlier stages are resolved, looking back with satisfaction of a life well led is a healthy manifestation of self. Maintaining a sense of worth and personal integrity during the final years is natural. Those who could not resolve earlier crises will look upon the prospects of old age and death with a deep sense of dread and despair. Another primary concept to EriksonÃ¢â¬â¢s system is ego identity development and the ego strengths that delineate each of the eight stages. His system stresses the egoÃ¢â¬â¢s complete and stabilizing influences in a personÃ¢â¬â¢s life history. He depicts the ego from a psychosocial viewpoint as the hub of individual identity. As the ego develops through life crises, it gains the capacity to master in increasingly sophisticated ways the puzzles posed by inner and outer reality. Erikson proposed that ego strength is achieved in a sequence of psychosexual stages. Beginning in infancy, the childÃ¢â¬â¢s ego must first learn to trust itself and others to become autonomous and self-sufficient. With trust and autonomy come the virtues of hope and will, forms of ego strength that foster sufficient security for the child to risk the potential disappointment that hope entails, and sufficient independence of spirit for children to dare to initiate willingly their personal adaptation to their inescapable realities. Once these fundamental ego strengths are acquired, the child is able to acquire a sense of purpose, competence, fidelity, love, care and wisdom Ã¢â¬â the ego strengths associated with each stage. EriksonÃ¢â¬â¢s theory embodies a well-balanced concern for nonmothetic or universal psychological Ã¢â¬Å"lawsÃ¢â¬ with some traditional psychoanalytic concern for the uniqueness of the individual, especially in the areas of clinical application and psychohistory. So where does all this theorizing leave Jenny Masterson? A Freudian psychoanalyst may have Jenny free associate to certain terms. Perhaps her free association would turn out something like this: Psychoanalyst: Jenny, I want you to relax and lay back. Close your eyes. Now, I want you to give me the first word that pops into your head when I say a certain word. For instance, if I said Ã¢â¬Å"Dog,Ã¢â¬ you might say, Ã¢â¬Å"Cat. Ã¢â¬ Jenny: No, if you said, Ã¢â¬Å"dog,Ã¢â¬ I would say Ã¢â¬Å"dependent. Ã¢â¬ Psycho: Interesting, why do you think you would say Ã¢â¬Å"dependent? Ã¢â¬ Jenny: Ã¢â¬Å"Well, they are arenÃ¢â¬â¢t they? I have to feed them, I have to bathe them, I have to wash them, I have to walk them Ã¢â¬â just like a small child. Except they wonÃ¢â¬â¢t disobey you, and I expect theyÃ¢â¬â¢d be a little more respectful of all that I would do for them. Psycho: Okay, the next word is religion. Jenny: Futile. Non-lasting. Psycho: Love Jenny: Useless. Really, love means nothing, just like marriage is meaningless. Psycho: I see. Next word, sex. Jenny: Ugh. So vulgar, dirty, disgusting. So beastly. Psycho: Okay. How about children? Jenny: Ungrateful. Possessions. Really, children just do not realize all that we do for them. We sacrifice, we slave so that their existence may be better and what do they do for us? Nothing. Just heartbreak, never ending hearbreak. Psycho: Okay, just one last word, woman. Jenny: Prostitute. Chip. Unclean. Most women are just so ugly, inside and out. I simply cannot stand their smiles Ã¢â¬â so inviting, those little trollops. Jenny had some major hang-ups in the area of sexuality. Perhaps all her Ã¢â¬Å"problemsÃ¢â¬ stem from this one subject. Sex. Her hostility towards other women, her hinted-at incestuous relationship with Ross, her extreme jealousy of RossÃ¢â¬â¢ girlfriends, her possessiveness, her lack of close friends Ã¢â¬â all of these can be traced back to her most important subject. Jenny might have been characterized as an anal character. It can be speculated that during her toilet training stage, she refused to give, was prudish and was retentive. It can be speculated that perhaps through unwise parental insistence, she may have come to value yet fear this psychical function and all the features associated with it. According to Freud, this type of person becomes orderly to the point of obsession, egocentric, picayunish, preoccupied with money and material things and obstinate. Jenny is all of these things. His theory also holds that sadomasochism is also a trait of the anal character. Jenny exhibits this. She inflicts and receives suffering all of her life. She is constantly asking for suffering from Glenn and Isabel when she continually insults them, yet they never give in and make her suffer. She creates situations where only suffering can result for her and others, like when Ross and her moved into the same flat. That was doomed to fail. She constan! tly obsessed over where he was, whom he was with, why he wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t paying rent Ã¢â¬â she drove herself crazy, and in the process alienated her son. Like any masochist, she seems in a strangely perverted way to relish her martyrdom and enjoy her distress. Freudian theory holds that the instincts seek pleasure and therefore that JennyÃ¢â¬â¢s persistence in her treacherous behavior must give her some gratification. While her behavior goes against the very grain of survival, and therefore must be neurotic, it serves to gratify her masochistic needs. Continuing with this theme, Jenny believed sex to be dirty, and beastly. It is not known much about her marriage, but one can hardly picture Jenny as a wanton woman, or even as a woman with normal sexual drives. Her marriage may have even been a product of rebellion, again an anal trait, against her family. The principle explanation for Jenny in a Freudian analysis would turn to JennyÃ¢â¬â¢s confused sexual identity. It might be said that she never worked through her oedipal complex successfully. She did identify with her mother, according to her sister however. By identifying with her mom, she may have taken on masculine role. After all, by 18 she was the main breadwinner in the house. Perhaps she wished to possess her mother, since she had taken on the male role. When she married, this psychosexual confusion was not resolved. In fact, it may have been worsened by her husbandÃ¢â¬â¢s death. It is said that Jenny did not grieve for her husband. Perhaps she merely transferred her womanly affection onto Ross, expecting a relationship from him that was like that of a lover and not a son. Her jealousy over his girlfriends and her kisses under the moonlight certainly point towards unnatural feelings towards him. Perhaps, with RossÃ¢â¬â¢ birth, she was able to find a replacement for her lack of penis. Ross may have been a projection of her true masculine nature. She was able to live her life in the masculine image by being one with Ross. When he died, she kept his robe and pipe, thus cherishing the remnants of her/his masculine identity. Her love of Ross gives an impression of an incestuous relationship. She has fits of jealousy over his lovers, calls him, Ã¢â¬Å"sex madÃ¢â¬ and talks of him like a lover (Ã¢â¬ kissed under the starsÃ¢â¬ ). She is very delusional when she believes that to Ross, she is responsible for his existence but that he owes her nothing. Her actions speak contrary to this. She is the perfect martyr, constantly making exaggerated sacrifices for Ross. In reality, she expected him to repay her with undying devotion. She wanted to possess him.
Tuesday, August 13, 2019
Should we cry for Argentina - Essay Example In recent times, Argentinians have suffered from the decline in economic standings (Farzard, 2010). This paper will review the crisis the country faces, and what they are doing to ensure they get through the situation. Local companies present at the time can attest to the situation that existed. They could not send money abroad for many of their financial activities. This was because the central bank had to give approval on these transactions in order to maintain some of the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s capital. The blame game continued between the government and financial agencies while the economy continued to plummet. As the Argentinian peso was losing its value, it became obvious that the situation was getting from poor to worse. Some of the stringent measures included seizing the citizensÃ¢â¬â¢ cash in order to regulate how they withdrew money from their bank accounts was introduced (Farzard, 2010). This led to countrywide protests against such moves by the government, and what it meant to their freedom. Business operations were brought to a standstill through all the commotion as banks were attacked. The raising of taxation through government policies made it harder for businesses to grow and expand. This implied that all those involved in the transportation of goods and services, whether local or foreign, were affected immensely (Farzard, 2010). Coming across funds to pay foreign suppliers became harder for the local traders, and their businesses. This led to the dipping in the local market for local goods. The collapse of the economy brought plenty of trouble for the Argentinian government. It became hard to fulfil the needs of the people as many more people seemed to suffer from poverty. Inflation levels grew to a high level and employment was for only a few people in Argentina. As all these problems continued to engulf Argentina, their hope to get themselves out of debt was dwindling. This is as
Monday, August 12, 2019
The United Sates' Diplomatic Trouble Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words - 1
The United Sates' Diplomatic Trouble - Essay Example In addition, the ideology of capitalism, and its ability to create wealth, has been treated with an almost Manifest Destiny quality as presidents have viewed it as their obligation to promote free trade around the world. Yet, many times the government has found itself mired in a military situation or occupation lasting far beyond the optimistic expectations that were presented on the initial assessments. Situations, which should lend themselves to a diplomatic solution, end up in a military response and the loss of life on all sides. These efforts have usually failed because they do not meet the liberal standard for humanitarian intervention, and the diplomacy has failed to account for the realism of a confrontational world. Woodrow Wilson pioneered modern thinking in regards to a peaceful world where liberal institutions and nations diplomatically solved their differences as opposed to military action. Yet, his administration became involved in a lengthy occupation at Vera Cruz Mexico, which began as a simple arms seizure. While Wilson was seen as a man of peace, this reach across international borders in April 1914 would cost 300 Mexican lives and lingers today as a sign of Yankee Imperialism and gunboat diplomacy (Fagen 686). In his efforts to extend humanitarian intervention into Mexico, he had failed to calculate and consider the reaction of the Mexicans. He had placed the ethics of installing a legitimate government over the reality of the situation. According to Quirk, "combined with his sincere and heartfelt confidence in mans reasonability, was Wilsons almost perverse conviction that he, himself, was perpetually right. He did not seek advice. Other mens opinions did not really concern him, unle ss they should happen to coincide with his" (29). This is the danger of liberalistic attitudes in international affairs. They often assume an almost religious fervor. The incident was precipitated when American citizens conducting
Theoretical Analysis - The 21st Centy Organization - Assignment Example The three articles: Why Few Organizations Adopt Systems Thinking by Ackoff; How to be a truly global company by Prahalad and Bhattacharya; and Putting Organizational Complexity in Its Place by Birkinshaw and Heywood, are highly relevant as they provide a huge insight into the factors that are having an impact on organizations in the 21st century. Three reading that are interesting Ackoff (2005) in his article is distinct in its philosophy that system thinking is vital ingredient of organizational success or its failure when it is not part of organizational strategy. According to him, there is a distinct lack of dynamic decision making that takes into account the changing environment and organizational managementÃ¢â¬â¢s willingness to learn from its failure or wrong decisions. These are important factors because organizational culture does not allow failures thereby not only restricting creativity within organization but also failing to take risk that could provide the organizations with competitive advantage. It is important that one takes the risks and commits mistakes and learns from it. System thinking broadly encourages responsible decision-making and allows its workforce to err in order to make a successful decision next time. In the contemporary environment of competitive business, new challenges need to be faced with equanimity and as new opportunities of growth. Prahalad and Bhattacharya (2011) have given important clues to become a global company with success. They emphasize that organizational restructuring greatly helps to inculcate trust in the stakeholders across the globe. Meeting local demands through customization of products and using local resources is very important for business to gain the trust of the local people where they are doing business. McDonaldsÃ¢â¬â¢ has customized its products to suit local requirement across its global outlets. Exploiting local talents and cultural competencies become the highlight of truly global companies which thrive on global competitive businesses. Globalization has given a big thrust to industrialization and development through expansion of business across geographical boundaries. In globalization, inter-dependency of resources has become a reality. Thus, flexible approach and acting local with global vision provides the individuals and organizations with greater leverage to compete and gain leverage. Birkinshaw and Heywood (2010) have raised very pertinent issues of organizational complexities within and outside its offices across different geographical areas which emerge due to changing dynamics of business environment in the 21st century. The outdated business processes, ambiguity in roles, conflicting ideologies of pluralistic workforce etc. are vital obstacles that hinder growth. The institutional complexities and individual complexities need to be addressed and managed effectively for higher productive outcome. Institutional complexities are major issues which considerably impact employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ performance. The complexities like role ambiguity, identifying obstacles like poor processes, product alignment with current demand etc. must be addressed and redefined to accommodate changing preferences of the