Monday, September 30, 2019
Ã¢â¬Å"Humans and IdeasÃ¢â¬ Some of the most powerful ideas humans developed during early divination of 3000 BCE to 618 CE have been about techniques to improve living. New technological ideas from the invention of the wheel to the hand crank pump have transformed how millions of people live. The way technological ideas have accumulated over time and the effects they have had on society is one of the main themes of world history. Shortly before 3000 BCE, Mesopotamians invented a technological idea which ended in a writing system called cuneiform that increased communication, record keeping, and abstract thought.Through symbols written on wet clay tablets that represented objects and sounds, history could be recorded for the first time. Writing was a major expansion of the conceptual horizon of humankind that reached back to the first flaked stones, ornaments, figurines, and cave paintings in the Paleolithic (Von Sivers 44). Early metallurgists discovered that by adding tin to copp er they were able to make bronze which was much harder than copper and provided a sharper cutting edge which was the start of the Bronze Age (Lecture).By 2800 BCE Sumer entered into what is described as the protoliterate period where scribes would work with pictograms and official seals but there was still no official written language (Lecture). Harappan cities were unique to the 1700Ã¢â¬â¢s BCE due to the meticulously planned grid-like design that included a most elaborate urban sewer system for ancient times. Remarkably straight, brick paved streets ran in north/south, east/west axes forming square blocks of public buildings, temples, and markets in convenient locations.Houses had brick-lined indoor wells and primitive toilets emptying into terra-cotta cesspits whose overflow connected to the cityÃ¢â¬â¢s drains and sewers (Von Sivers 80). Located several miles up the Sabarmati River from the Gulf of Khambat, Lothal was a large, perhaps the chief, of all trading seaports around 1700 BCE. Lothal central structure is an enormous basin, approximately 120 feet long and 70 feet wide. The location of Lothal on the Arabian Sea indicates a link between Harappan cities and trade that would have reached Mesopotamia and possibly Egypt.Lothal was also a famous regional craft center, with micro beads used for decorative craft items and jewelry as its chief product for internal trade and export (Von Sivers 80). Around 1700 BCE, the chariot and composite bow made their entry into the Middle East and eastern Mediterranean region, transforming armies who previously relied solely on foot soldiers. Black smiths mastered the art of iron making and incorporated iron into their chariot armies, in the form of swords, helmets, and protective armor (Von Sivers 53).The Shang Dynasty used the horse to drive chariots, which transformed the Chinese warfare for transportation, which linked disparate regions of China and helped the Shang to expand. It was a featured in art and poetry a nd thus offered a new symbol for artist and poets to work with. It will also link China to nomadic horse people from the north and west (Von Sivers 110). The people in Meroe mined, smelted, and forged iron which they were the first to do so in sub-Saharan Africa. The craft of iron smelting evolved gradually in Hittite Anatolia during several centuries after 1500 BCE.The possible spread of iron-working sills from the Middle East to Africa has not been satisfactorily proved. Iron workers in African villages adapted iron-making to local village circumstances. The production of iron, or greater import was the knowledge f how to forge the bloom-the combination of raw iron and slag- into an iron- carbon allow that was neither too soft nor too brittle (Von Sivers 165). Chariots and bows were introduced to the Shan army between 1300-1200 BCE. Around 1200 BCE, The Olmec crafted figurines, mask of clays, and made figurines from jade and serpentine.The Olmec heads were carved from 18 ton block s of basalt that were quarried 70 miles away from San Lorenzo. Large groups of workers shouldered beams from which the basalt blocks, weighing 18 tons on average, hung in slings. They carried these blocks to the coast and shipped them to San Lorenzo on rafts. There, sculptors fashioned the blocks into fierce-looking, helmeted heads, kneeling or sitting figures, and animal statues (Von Sivers 145). The Lydians are notable for having created in 615 BCE the first minted money in world history, coins made of silver and gold and used in trade (Von Sivers 199).The Achaemenids created an elaborate system of roads known as the royal roads around 550 BCE for communication and transportation of troops and trade. The Persian Empire in particular covered vast amounts of land, from Anatolia to Egypt and Mesopotamia, to modern day Afghanistan. The Persian Empire was both centralized and decentralized. One centralized aspect, as revealed by the roads, was the need to pay taxes and tribute to the s hahinshah, the emperor. Even more revealing is the style of the Persian roads, with distance markers at regular intervals, inns and depots indicating the sophistication of the Persian infrastructure.The centralization of the empire is further revealed by the regulation that local parts of the road had to be maintained by the local governors, appointed by the emperor; thus even to the local level the emperor had influe nce (Von Sivers 200). The Achaemenids achieved their conquests with the help of lightly armed; highly mobile mounted archers as well as heavily armored, slow-moving cataphracts-horsemen with protective armor consisting of iron scales sewn on leather shirts. Quilts and iron scales protected the horses. The archers fought with composite bows and the cataphracts, with 5-foot long, iron-tipped lances for thrusting.Infantry soldiers armed with bows, arrows, shields, and javelins provided support for the cavalry, complementing its tank-like thrust (Von Sivers 200). The Well- Field System was an attempt to untangle the more confusing aspects of land arrangement around 500 BCE. The Zhou was the first among many dynasties to attempt to impose a uniform system of land tenure in China. Each square Li(one li is about one-third of a mile), consisting of 900 mou(each mou is approximately one-sixth of an acre) was divided into a grid of nine plots.Individual families would each work one of the eight outside plots while the middle one would be farmed in common for the taxes and rents owed the landowner or local officials (Von Sivers 117). In the 5th Century BCE, sculptors began to explore physical movement, emotion, and individual character by Greek Painting and Sculpture. Greek vase paintings and sculptures achieved a remarkable wide range, from figures exerting themselves in their chosen sports to serene models of human beauty.Greek sculptors and painters abandoned symbolism and instead, embraced realism as their style of representation in which we call today p hotographic representation (Von Sivers 229). Craftspeople from the Chavin deÃ¢â¬â¢ Hauntar around 500 BCE made beads, pendants, stone tools and leather goods, but pioneered new techniques combining the wool from llamas with cotton to create a new blended cloth. They decorated it using new methods of dyeing and painting. Goldsmiths demised new methods of soldering and alloying gold and silver to make large ornamental objects.Small objects, such as golden headbands, ear spools, beads, and pins, signified prestige and wealth. Gold artifacts found in the graves of the wealthy attest to the value residents of Chavin placed on gold (Von Sivers 144). What technical and cultural development allowed the people of the Lapita culture to spread throughout the Pacific Islands? 500 BCE-200 BCE- The Polynesian Islands were settled in part due to sail and paddle-driven canoes, which were further improved by the addition of outriggers or double hulls.These boats improvements allowed the Polynesian s to sail further and reach some of the more distant islands. Cultural developments included the ability to retain elaborate, detailed mental maps of islands, ability to read wind patterns and currents, and retention of celestial information that allowed for navigation (Von Sivers ). The Silk Road was an overland trade routes that connected eastern and western Eurasia, beginning at the end of the fourth century BCE (Von Sivers 286).Mayans developed writing that was a complex combination of glyphic and syllabic script as early as 400-300 BCE. Mayan writing is a glyphic as well as a syllabic script, numbering some 800 signs. It is structurally similar to Sumerian cuneiform and Egyptian hieroglyphic. The glyphic part consists of pictograms, one-word images of the most essential features of what is to be depicted. Glyphs as syllables consist of one, two, or three of syllabic glyphs, or syllabaries, are pronounced as a series of syllables.Given the mixture of pictograms and syllabaries, which is potentially immense, the complexity of Mayan writing appeared for a long time to be an insuperable obstacle to any effort at deciphering (Von Sivers 182). Around 300 BCE, The Upanishadic writers, or which one hundred are known, thought that the Vedic religion had become too distracted due to the thousands of gods. The Upanishads instead sought a monist, rather that polytheistic approach, and sought for a first principle, a universal truth that did not require the worship of many different gods.The Upanishadic writers were hermits who wanted to reach unity with the universal self, which would remove them from the cycle of rebirth and redeath that characterized earthly life. Salvation in this system was moksha, escape from reincarnation. This salvation was achieved through meditation and brief aphorisms becoming a vital part of a new evolving tradition (Von Sivers 248). Around 221 BCE, the Qin Shi Huangdi, the first emperor of the Qin, accomplished a significant part of empir e and state building.These are several accomplishments of Shi Huangdi to include: building the Great Wall of China that was massive project stretching over 1400 miles to safeguard against attacks by nomadic people in the north; standardized weights, measures, and coinage; building roads, canals, irrigation, water conservancy projects; his tomb with life-sized warriors; use of conscripted labor; and the implementation of Legalism as the primary philosophy of the realm. Each of these was designed primarily to increase the centralized power of the Qin leader and his state.Babylonians were great mathematicians, who worked fractions, whole numbers and square roots as well as some of the elementary theorems of geometry (Lecture). Starting from the foundations of the Sumerians, the Babylonians made advances in arithmetic, geometry, and algebra. Buddhism, the most profound intellectual influences from India on the surrounding regions was in science and mathematics. During the period from th e second century BCE until the second century CE India was an importer of scientific and mathematical concepts from the Greco-Roman and Persian spheres.Greek geometry, made its way into northern India during this time. Concepts of Indian health regimens-some involving yoga discipline-along with the vast body of Indian medicine, with its extensive knowledge of herbal remedies, also seem to have moved west. In the area of mathematics and astronomy an important synthesis of ideas took place in the developing the first Indian calendars, which were based on the lunar months, through a year consisted of six seasons and an intercalary period was inserted every 30 months to make up the difference with the solar year.The Indians then adopted the calendar of the eastern Mediterranean and southwest Asia, which had a 7 Ã¢â¬âday week, a 24-hour day, and a 365-day solar year-along with the 12 zodiacal signs of the Greco-Roman world (Von Sivers 264). The earthenware produced during the Tang dyn asty 618 CE is among the most coveted in the world today. Perhaps even more impressive, by this time, too, artisans were producing a kind of Ã¢â¬Å"proto-porcelainÃ¢â¬ that, with increasing refinement, would be know in the succeeding centuries to the outside world as Ã¢â¬Å"chinaÃ¢â¬ (Von Sivers 284).Throughout history, humans have adapted their ideas to their environment and learned to overcome obstacles, thus paving the way for new elements of technology. Humans expressed themselves and communicated with one another in sophisticated ways through paintings, sculptures, and the decorative arts as well as writing, construction, and metals. Of more recent, humans invented writing systems that gave birth to many forms of literature. Humans have wrestled with ideas and beliefs regarding technology.
Sunday, September 29, 2019
Relationships and individualsÃ¢â¬â¢ bank switching behavior Abstract We examine the role of relationships between individuals and their banks in determining bank switching behavior. Using data from a survey questionnaire from a random sample of bank customers in the United States, we find that the variables measuring the various dimensions of a relationship significantly lower an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s propensity to switch banks. These include the duration of an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s relationship with her bank, whether or not she has had problems with her bank in the past, and aspects of the quality of the service relationship. An innovation of the current paper lies in incorporating finance/economic aspects of relationship with the various dimensions of service quality relationship collectively as determinants of an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s propensity to switch banks. The attributes capturing whether or not an individual feels that her bank is responsive, is empathetic and is reliable to her needs, are all significantly negatively correlated with her propensity to switch banks. Our results demonstrate just how relationships may help in limiting bank switching behavior and deliver a strong message to banks about the importance of relationships in retaining loyal customers. Our findings also underscore the interconnectedness of seemingly disparate disciplines to better understand the behavior and decision making of individuals and their banks. Author Keywords: Bank switching; Relationships
Saturday, September 28, 2019
Patrick Henry and Martin Luther King Jr. were two of the most influential revolutionaryÃ¢â¬â¢s known to mankind. Even though their views on how to become liberated were completely opposite, their passion and unrelenting determination eventually proved to be rewarding. Patrick Henry and Martin Luther King Jr. are as the sun and water fighting for the same withering blossom but with different methods to success. Patrick Henry had an intense, win big or lose big approach to freedom. In his speech he is pleading to the president to open his eyes and notice that everything is not apt. Henry was telling the president there was no peaceful means of settling this dispute with Great Britain. They tried to solve their differences by talking for ten years, Henry said, but to no avail. According to Henry, there was nothing left to do but fight for their freedoms. He said,Ã¢â¬ If we wish to be free-if we mean to preserve inviolate those inestimable privileges for which we have been so long contending-if we mean not basely to abandon the noble struggle in which we have been so long engaged, and which we have pledged ourselves never to abandon until the glorious object of our contest shall be obtained, we must fight! I repeat it, sir, we must fight!Ã¢â¬ . He yearned for freedom so desperately he was willing to die for it. Ã¢â¬Å"Give me liberty, or give me deathÃ¢â¬ . Martin Luther King Jr. was just as ardent for freedom as Patrick Henry was, but his approach was different. He devised a more passive plan to lift his oppression. He was very unwavering in his non-violent beliefs. His philosophy was that violence only brings momentary results. Violence only starts a circle of endless chaos. He believed you must offset hatred with love. In order to progress something has to be gained. When violence is present nothing is gained, therefore, in order to progress you will need to use non-violent tactics. Patrick and Martin had many differences. They have different policies in which they followed to overcome cruelty. They also had different types of oppression. Martin was dealing with racial issue and Patrick was dealingÃ with governmental issues. Martin was a peaceful, non-violent problem solver and Patrick wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t getting any results being nonviolent so he became violent. These two men also have some things in common. They both had a strong belief in God. They both had been under heavy subjugation. They both fought the oppressor, although with different means of force, both were successful. These two great men help shape our country in to what it is today. Whether by violence or non-violent acts both overcame the harsh realities of life. Without their sacrifices where would we as a people be today?
Friday, September 27, 2019
Education as the Surest Way of Empowering an Individual - Essay Example This way, I will make the scholarship work both for me and for the rest of people in my community. My history is grim and hopeless. However, I have always loved studies. I have interacted with educated people in a number of scenarios and I have always loved their lives. My childhood role model was a district attorney who lived in my township. I promised myself while young to work hard in studies to become as successful as he was and indeed, I have and continues to work hard in my studies. The cost of high-quality education remained a forbidding factor in my quest for competitive education in leading institutions of higher learning. The scholarship offers me an opportunity to identify my interests and abilities. Furthermore, it provides me with an opportunity to work on the two in order to become a productive member of the society. As such, the scholarship is an opportunity for me to receive the education I have desired for as long as I can remember. The education I receive through the scholarship is going to help me, my family and my community in a number of ways. Among the ways the education is going to benefit me is by molding my personality into an ideal individual capable of communicating with people from various backgrounds and capable of upholding the ethical standards in any society. Education grooms people. It increases the mental capacities of an individual thereby making people more reasonable and capable of embracing peaceful ways of resolving conflicts and minimizing harm. I believe I will learn a number of humanist concepts that will enable my growth into an analytical adult capable of protecting the interests of the various publics I will interact with in future. The traits I describe above are those of a leader.
Thursday, September 26, 2019
Financial Management - Essay Example (Kieso, 2009) Recording includes journalizing the transactions by recording them into a daily book known as General Journal; these transactions are then posted in the ledger to separate the transaction with respect to their nature. Moreover, these are subsequently used to make financial statements at the end of the accounting cycle to gauge the performance of the firm. (Kieso, 2009) However, this all process is governed under some accounting principles that are taken into account when the transaction are recorded, posted or reused in the making of the financial statements which include balance sheet, statement of income and expenditure, statement of cash flows and statement of changes in equity. (Kieso, 2009) ACCOUNTING CONCEPTS The accounting concepts include the assumptions on which the accounting systems are based. They provide the key steps and guides towards the preparation of financial statements. ... Below, we will discuss in detail about the concepts mentioned above. Business Entity: A concept that treats business as a separate entity from that of its owners. Thus if the owner of the firm purchases a car for his personal use then that transaction would not be treated as a part of the business; however if the car would have been purchased for the business usage, then the transaction would have been recorded under the account of the business. (Kieso, 2009) Money Measurement: Accounting allows one to record only those transactions which are monetary in nature. (Kieso, 2009) For example, Apple by virtue of accounting laws can never bring the worth of Steve Jobs on the financial statements, nor it was able to reflect the expected loss in AppleÃ¢â¬â¢s worth after Mr. Jobs died, thus a company cannot bring the death of an employee on the financial statements since the event cannot be classified in terms of money. However, if a transaction is monetary in nature then only it can be rec orded; for instance, ABC Company purchased office equipment worth $1 million, now, since the transaction is monetary in nature, the transaction can be recorded in the books of the accounts. Cost Concept: This concept requires one to record an asset at a cost at which it is acquired. For instance, if Wal-Mart was able to acquire a new land at $1 million whose market price was $2 million, then the transaction will record land at $1 million, even though the market price of land is $2 million. There are two advantages of this assumption; first being the fact that it ensures filtering of more than one possible market price, and second, being the fact that the cost can be documented and thus can be used
Modren and tradition family - Research Paper Example Since I had a question in mind I was somehow sunken in thought was not very keen to notice the old man approach me. He greeted me casually. Without hesitating, he went ahead to answer my question even before I presented it to him, he seemed to have read my mind. He said, Ã¢â¬Å"I missed something when I was a child. I missed the childhood games. My son, during our times we played with small glass bells in the street, hiding, and swimming in the poolÃ¢â¬ , He paused, I wanted to intervene but he proceeded, Ã¢â¬Å"Our grandfathers dug wells by their bare hands using crude tools, and it was pure water and stemmed from under the ground. We were excited when we played in front of our mothers. Our mothers cleaned our clothes and utensils using it. We also played with neighborsÃ¢â¬â¢ children after we had finished studying holy Quran. There were no schools in those days. The days were awesome, those days are gone my sonÃ¢â¬ . When he had finished his speech, he took a deep breath. Act ually, I liked his speech, and I admired the days. The conversation looked more like an imagination despite being the naked truth. When I reported home that night, I talked with my mother about the old man that I had met in the beach. She told me, Ã¢â¬Å"listen my daughter, everyone lives in their generation. If you went back to those old days, you would loathe them and admire to come back to your days, the old were characterized by difficulties that could only be handled by them that lived at that timeÃ¢â¬ . She went on to mention that there was no electricity, cars, planes, and electronic machines among other things. Just like the old man, she reiterated that formal education was nonexistent. I agreed with her that if it were not for education today life would be very boring. The industries were undeveloped and the jobs done were manual in most occasions, they revolved around farming, fishing, hunting and gathering, grazing cattle, and delivering water to houses. She noted sever al benefits that emanated from the traditional way of life. People used to live in communities, the concept of capitalism was nonexistent, and the families had no privacy. The responsibilities were clearly defined; the women cooked food, took care of the children, brought water from the spring, cleaned stuff, and served their husbandÃ¢â¬â¢s family without any objection. The community defined individual rights, most women and men had no rights in those days because the manÃ¢â¬â¢s father was the ultimate decision maker even if the man got married. The old man and my mother had similar points of view as well as differences; I realized that they had different opinions between traditional and modern family setups. This arouses a desire in me to focus about traditional and modern family systems in my country. Although some people believe that the traditional family is the best than modern family structure, both traditional and modern family has positive and negative implications in te rms of their lifestyle, education and the rules governing them. The traditional and modern family setups are different in the way individuals used to reside and the way it is done today. Traditionally an extended family lived in one big house. It consisted of the grandfather, parents, uncles, aunts, and their children. Both the male and female children occupied the same bedroom, likewise the parents would share bedrooms and
Wednesday, September 25, 2019
Week 5 Hand-In - Assignment Example In this programming paradigm, there are function definitions and an expression whose value is outcome of the result of the program are necessary parts of a program. This expression in the program can be replaced by its value and by doing this there will be no effect on the overall output of the program. A functional language program consumes large amount of computerÃ¢â¬â¢s memory and are not time efficient but are they are well-designed. Some of the examples are SML, FP and LML (FOLDOC, 2003). In this programming paradigm the objective provided by the user is satisfied by the computer system by successive backward attempts. The objective is satisfied if it is equivalent to a fact. The process becomes recursive of the objective becomes equal to a rule and in this case the rule is only successful if it satisfies all the sub divisions of the objective (FOLDOC, 1997). In this type of programming paradigm some concepts such as objects and methods are used. An object is a data structure and a method is basically a set of routine. The object, which is actually an instance of a particular class, is encapsulated in a method and function of the method is to operate on data. There are five key conceptions object oriented programming language that are: Answer: Each mathematical or logical expression has operators in it. The order in which these operators must be evaluated is known as operator precedence. Figure 1(C operator precedence table, 2011) shows the operator precedence: If a programming language is strongly typed then it means that the variable type must be explicitly stated. The example of strongly typed programming language is C. here if the variable type is not defined then error will occur at the time of compilation (About.com,
Tuesday, September 24, 2019
Human Resource Management - Essay Example Curran (1990) reported on the Occupational Safety and Health Act. This was the first time that OSHA developed a policy that would "assure as far as possible safe and healthful working conditions for every woman and man in the nation" (p. 1010). The reason this act was created was because of a Supreme Court decision that workers had a right to refuse to follow a direct order from their employer if this order would put them into "imminent danger of lose of life or serious physical injury and not to suffer discriminatory action due to such refusal" (p. 1010). Today, these laws assist people in the workplace especially where there are dangerous chemicals or other dangerous materials. This was one example of protecting employees and to initiate something like this, the people involved would have to go through Human Resources to file their complaints. Another example of the need for safety is that of conflict in the workplace. There are always employees who do not get along well with each other and there needs to be a policy for conflict resolution. Weitzman and Weitzman (2006) take into consideration that "younger and middle-aged adults" have many "interpersonal challenges at work" (p. 45). They created a training to help in these situations. There are many different ways that employees can have conflict in the workplace and most have difficulty understanding what to do when they have these conflicts. What needs to happen in these researchers view is that they would need to understand and use interpersonal communication. They suggest that in order to do well with conflict, people must learn how to actively listen to others, change their perspectives in the situation in working with others. The researchers also suggest that when employees learn about conflict and they understand how the workplace works, they are able to better
Monday, September 23, 2019
Monopolistic competition - Research Paper Example Since then, availability has increased across the world and the industry has grown with emergency and growth of new mobile phone companies because demand for cell phones has gone up. Currently, the smart phone market is the most sought after with players in the industry striving for a place in the market. Among the global leaders in the industry are Samsung, Apple, LG, Nokia, LG, and ZTE, while other minor companies tend to dominate their respective regions of operation. Samsung still leads in the smart phone market (Table 1 and Table 2). This paper discusses Samsung as a mobile manufacturer, and its relation to other players in the industry. As a manufacturing company in a highly competitive industry that thrives on innovation and technology, Samsung has perfected the art of customization in its efforts to differentiate its products from those of its competition. In a bid to avoid commoditization therefore, the company customised their production as much as they could. More than 50 percent of the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s memory chips have been special orders for other manufacturers including Nokia, Microsoft and Dell. At one instance the firm undertook an effort that was aimed at converting its product line to a high end premium goods one from a previously low end commodity product line. In addition, the company has strived to lay an emphasis on hardware technology as opposed to its competition such as Apple and Samsung who concentrate on getting into proprietary content and software such as movies, music, and games. Though there are many mobile phones, each brand or company exhibits a high level of differentiation in the minds of consumers. This could be as a result of continuous usage and thorough advertising. Therefore, existence of a large number of sellers who sell close substitute products that are differentiated has led to monopolistic competition in the mobile phone industry. Samsung competes with other mobile phone companies by exercising
Sunday, September 22, 2019
Leadership-Development Programs Essay 1.0 Background At the senior executive staff meeting of August 1, 2012, the director of operations suggested that Cliffside Holding Company of Massapequa (CHCM) establish a leadership-development program to prepare junior financial executives for future advancement into executive positions. Specifically, the proposal was to send 20 employees off-site each year for a three-week program offered by the Aspen Leadership Institute of Colorado at a cost of $5,000.00 USD per student. The total cost to CHCM would be $100,000.00 per year plus approximately the same amount for lost time on the job. 2.0 Discussion CHCM has been in business for over 50 years. Our average growth rate is 12% per annum. None of our twelve senior executives has attended a leadership development seminar and yet our company has been prosperous. This calls into question whether a leadership development program is even necessary. Moreover, since our leadership has been successful and effective withoutÃ such programs it appears that leaders are born, not made. In fact, I surveyed your senior staff and all but one agreed with this notion. To quote the famous economist Dr. Irwin Corey, each of us is Ã¢â¬Å"born into this world accompanied by a rich, psychical disposition, which furnishes him ready-made all his motivations of conductÃ¢â¬ ¦He can show a demand for nothing that is not prompted by this galaxy of instincts.Ã¢â¬ The online reference site Wikipedia defines leadership as Ã¢â¬Å"the ability of an individual to influence, motivate, and enable others.Ã¢â¬ There exists an entire school of leadership theory which holds that leaders have certain traits in common. Winston Churchill, Mother Theresa, Martin Luther King, Jr. Ã¢â¬â all possessed such leadership traits as ambition, self-confidence, and intelligence. These cannot be learned; they are innate. Two well-respected research studies that support the notion that personality traits can predict leadership were published in the Journal of Applied Psychology and in the Leadership Quarterly. In my own experience, IÃ¢â¬â¢ve also noted that a tall physical stature is possessed by leaders. Certainly no one can increase his or her heightit is determined by genetics. Note the heights of some of the greatest leaders in United States history in the table, below. Source: http://www.laughtergeneology.com , http://www.imdb.com and http://www.imdb.com/name/nm1682433/bio In fact, all members of your senior staff are over six feet tall with one exception: Ms. Florence Forsythe, the person advocating leadership development training. Moreover, I am suspect as to her intentions. Is it possible that she may covet my position as the human resources VP? Or is she motivated by the liberal notion that all citizens of a free nation have the right to pursue education and can achieve anything they desire? I suspect she is motivated by both personal gain and bleeding-heart liberal intentions. Once we start sending some people for leadership training, we will start getting numerous requests for expensive training that we simply cant afford. Regardless, if we spend our money on leadership development, we will not have enough to spend on recruitment. And, from the discussion above, it would be more logical to select and recruit those with leadership traits than to try and develop those who are not. Moreover, if we spend money sending the wrong people to leadership training, the whole program will be a waste of money. There are plenty of people who are already leaders; we donÃ¢â¬â¢t need to Ã¢â¬Å"trainÃ¢â¬ those who are not. 3.0 Conclusion and Recommendation I speak for truth and common sense. CHCM should not invest in the proposed initiative to send its junior executives for annual leadership training. Leadership development programs are wasteful because the money is not well-spent. The advocate of this idea, Ms. Forsythe, is not really concerned about developing leaders for Cliffside Holding Co. Instead, Ms. Forsythe has a personal agenda to discredit me personally and push the theories of the Aspen Institute. As VP of Human Resources, I dont thinkÃ those theories are appropriate for the culture of CHCM.
Saturday, September 21, 2019
Export Oriented Industrialization In Developing Countries One of the key indicators, of economic development of a country, is its level of industrialization. That is, as many empirical investigations proved the main reason for increased divergence in living standards between the advanced countries and the developing countries is their level of industrialization. This being the fact, it is only after decolonization and end of world War II that, developing countries consciously adopted industrialization strategies for economic development purposes and as a solution, from their vulnerable dependence on export of few primary products and import of high valued manufactured goods (Brisbane, 1980). The low terms of trade in international market for primary goods from former colonies and the determination to get out of severe poverty and register sustained growth, were the main reasons for the diversification of the narrow structure of the colonial economy. Industrialization is beneficial for developing countries for many reasons including the following (i) it reduces their vulnerable dependence; (ii) it speeds up their economic growth process; (iii) it modernize the economy through spill over or externalities effects associated with industrialization, from advanced countries; (iv) create more employment for the vast population in rural agricultural sector and accelerate income growth which is used as a means to re-distribute income to the impoverished masses; and (v) generate more foreign currency through export which reduces balance of payment problems (Brisbane, 1980). As Brisbane explained, to industrialize, developing countries adopted import substitution strategies from about 1945 to the 1970s. Import substitution strategy is designed to produce few luxury consumer goods for domestic consumption behind a very high tariff wall. However, most countries which followed the import substitution strategy failed, to meet the goal of industrialization, while spectacular growth and development was reported from developing countries that pursued an export oriented strategy, in the 1970s. Defined simply, export-oriented Industrialization (EOI) often termed as export led industrialization (ELI) is a policy designed for the purpose of speeding up the industrialization process of a country through exporting goods for which the nation has a comparative advantage. This policy requires countries to open up their domestic market to foreign competition in return to getting access to international market. In order to promote EOI and ultimately economic development, complementary policies in relation to tariffs, trade, exchange rate, and others need to be adopted and employed. This paper will critically examine how export oriented industrialization is essential for economic growth in developing countries, if it can be backed up by appropriate policies on trade, industrial policy and exchange rate policy, geared for that purpose. The paper also argues that export oriented industrialization has its own drawbacks. Thus, the essay is structured as follows: In section 2, It the paper analyses the significance of policies on the functioning of EOI, particularly: trade policy, industrial policy and exchange rate policy that developing countries need to adopt and identifies areas where government intervention is needed to bring economic development. It then explains the drawbacks of export oriented industrialization, on export dependence countries, in Section 3. Then section 4, empirically examines how EOI contributes to economic development and the conclusions are presented in section 5. 2. Significance of Policies on EOI The role of complementary policies for effectiveness of export oriented industrialization is undeniable. This paper focuses mainly on how trade, industrial and exchange rate policies can support EOI policy. 2.1 Trade policy: Appropriate trade policy is one of the key tools used for effective of export oriented industrialization and for economic development, in general. That is, the better trade policy a country has, the better chance it has for industrial diversification, creating value added products and getting more income from export. Theoretical context: Even if, there has been little consensus on the relationship between trade and short- to medium -term economic growth-and even less on its role in long term economic development. The principle of comparative advantage, which prescribe countries to specialize as to their factor endowment, first described by David Ricardo, forms the theoretical basis for traditional trade theory and provides the rationale for free trade. The principle states that even if a country produced all goods more cheaply than other countries, it would benefit by specializing in the export of its relatively cheapest good (or the good in which it has a comparative advantage)(Murray Gibbs 2007, p. 10). And some classical economists believed that the principal base for this principle is the difference in factor endowments among countries determine the relative cost of production. However, this traditional theory from classical economists has been challenged as it doesnt explain well the actual trade patterns and as the theory has unrealistic assumptions, like perfect competition, full employment etc (Murray Gibbs 2007). In addition to the unrealistic assumptions, in real situations the theory favors advanced countries, and developing countries hardly benefit anything from it. The controversial Singer Prebisch thesis, also explained this situation by stating that it is the center that gets all the benefits of international trade while the periphery gets nothing, which opposes to the Ricardian Theory of Comparative Advantage. He argued: given the differences in the existing economic, productive and labor market structures between the periphery and the center (in the application of technology in traded goods and in the market structures; oligopoly vs. competitive) less-developed countries cannot benefit from international market, if they adopt comparative advan tage doctrine (Todaro and Smith 2009).This is because developing countries usually produce and export primary products which have lower terms of trade. And the scope for diversification is too narrow, and these conditions put developing countries to have vulnerable dependence on international market. Thus, unlike the classical economists static comparative advantage doctrine, dynamic comparative advantage is a better option for developing countries. This is because as more innovation, technology, capital, and other requirements for industrializations are met and as industrialization happens in developing countries, it will be easier to diversify their economic structure, as manufactured goods have better terms of trade than primary products. Skarstein (2007) in his paper Free Trade: A Dead End for Underdeveloped Economies,criticized the comparative advantage doctrine. He argued, what matters most in international trade is the absolute advantage that countries get out of it than a comparative advantage. And empirical evidences show that the doctrines of comparative advantage and free trade benefit the advanced countries only. This is mainly because the doctrines are likely to exclude international learning among countries. Particularly, the WTO agreement, Trade related intellectual property rights (TRIPS), which is a big challenge developing countries to acquire technology, skill and international learning from the rest of the world. He also argued, for a trade policy to function effectively, developing countries have to make sure that, this policy is well integrated with their industrial policy. And in addition to these, developing countries have to get support from advanced countries, through reduced import tariffs for goods from developing countries and by giving developing countries a chance to protect their industries and to get easy access to international market. He also stressed that, developing countries have to ensure that food security is maintained in their countries, as it keeps them safe from their foreign account, balance of payment problems as well. Thus, governments of developing countries have to protect agricultural production for consumption. Therefore, while designing policies, developing countries have to consider the dynamic comparative advantage or absolute advantage options. In addition to this, they also have to consider how their economic integration to the world economy should be in support of EOI. 2.2 Industrial policy: A proper industrial policy is also another important tool for effective export oriented industrialization, as a countrys industrialization depends on how individual domestic firms are protected. This is because, it is individual firms that innovate and harness technological change and compete in the world market (Suranovic, 2002). The basic policy component of industrial policy for developing countries is Infant industry protection. It is a necessary condition, because newly emerging firms in developing countries need some policy to help them grow strong and to safeguard them from intrusion of foreign firms in their market, that have a negative effect on their growth. Infant industries in developing countries can mainly be protected through import tariff mechanism, which reduce imports from the rest of the world and raises demand and production of domestic product. This protection enables the domestic firms to cover their higher production costs and to remain in business. Depending on the nature of the firm, infant industry protection strategy will help the domestic firms to produce efficiently and to be competent in international markets. However, in order to use the infant industry protection policy as a tool for export oriented industrialization, government of developing countries need to have reliable information about what industry to protect, how large the production tariffs need to be and over what period the tariffs will be reduced and eliminated. Because import tariffs have to be gradually reduced and eliminated, to increase efficiency of domestic firms. A complementary policy component to infant industry protection in export oriented industrialization is export promotion. This component stimulates export and allows the infant industry to have access to international market, while Infant industry protection policy allows the new domestic firm to grow strong. For industrial policy to be effective it has to be complemented by competition policy, as some regulations are required for the competition among domestic firms and simultaneously, as there is a need for policy to protect the domestic firms from intrusion of foreign firms in their market. A coherent execution of industrial policy requires a coordinated approach to trade policies. This is because trade policies are designed usually in accordance with a countrys trade negotiations, which include: policies related to investment, tariff, Intellectual property, and others. The effectiveness of tariffs as a tool for industrialization is also linked to the monetary policy framework within which it operates. When the capital account is liberalized control over exchange rates may be lost and the appreciation of exchange rates can obviously undermine export competitiveness and the impact of tariff protection (Murray Gibbs 2007, p. 19). 2.3. Exchange rate policy: The role of exchange rate policy in the success of export oriented industrialization strategy is undeniable. Exchange rate is a policy on the level of exchange rate of a countrys currency. The main challenge in formulating the exchange rate policy is in keeping balance between maintaining exchange rate stability and maintaining export price competitiveness, which requires devaluation. Devaluation increases the value of imports, while it gives options for exporters to choose either to reduce the prices of their products or to keep them as they are, to increase their profit margin. Thus, devaluation, at a cost of higher inflation, enables domestic industries to be competent internationally, by keeping the volume of import down and by raising the volume of export (domestic output) higher. The role of government in controlling inflation, to stabilize the economy is very essential, here. Thus, this phenomenon in addition to supporting the export oriented industrialization process it helps countries to improve their current account balance in Balance of payment problem (Jacob, Atta ; Keith R., Jefferis ; Ita, Mannathoko and Pelani, Siwawa-Ndai 2000) 3. Drawbacks of Export dependence A country is dependent on export, if export constitutes the largest portion of its gross domestic products. However, even if EOI strategy contributes for economic development, the extent to which this strategy is applied has to be considered for various reasons. To mention some of them, as dependency theorists argue: first, export dependent developing countries cause chaos on the long-term economic planning capacity of a nation-state (Barratt-Brown Prebisch) as these countries have little or no control over the market, to allow sustained economic growth through stable revenue. Second, Income from export is not a reliable source for economic development for developing countries. As many of the export oriented industrializations in these countries are owned by multinational corporations, and large portion of revenue from such sources are not repatriated, to be used for re-investment (Jaffee, 1985). 4. Empirical evidence: Skarstein, 2007 paper Free Trade: A Dead End for Underdeveloped Economies, showed the empirical evidences on EOIs contribution for miraculous economic development of the Asian tigers and the now developed countries. It mainly showed the relationship between economic development and effective implementation of infant industries protection policy and export promotion policy. In support of this, it is argued, that many people have argued that Infant industry protection was precisely the industrial development strategy that was pursued by countries like the US and Germany during their rapid industrial development before the turn of the 20th century. Both the US and Germany had high tariffs during their industrial revolution periods. These tariffs helped protect fledgling industries from competition with more efficient firms in Britain and may have been the necessary requirement to stimulate economic growth (Suranovic 2002) Bairoch also analyzed data and concluded that the different the effect of free trade on developed and developing countries is. In all the cases he analyzed, free trade has a positive effect on developed countries while it lets the least developed countries to suffer. He mentioned that United Kingdom registered its fastest growth during the period (1860 1880). In those cases he analyzed, how effective import tariffs for developing countries were in their economic development (Bairoch, 1972, p. 211). In his paper, Skarstein, illustrated, with detailed data how the East Asian tigers used industrialization policy for their economic development. That is: first by implementing a policy of protected import substitution and then, as their industries grow competent, by shifting their industrialization strategy to export oriented industrialization, with a slow reduction of import barriers for industrial good. And, at the same time, how implementing high import protection for their agriculture helped them to maintain food security and helped their success in industrialization The miraculous performance of the East and South East Asian countries during 1970s to 1990s cannot be analyzed without considering the connection between the export -oriented policies and economic growth. In the Newly Industrialized Economies from East and South East Asia, the general macroeconomic policies as well as selective export promotion policies facilitated the high export and economic growth. Following their path China and India also changed their policy stance in favor of export oriented policies and moved on the high growth trajectories. 5. Conclusions: In sum industrialization is a key process for developing countries for economic development. However, as many economists agree, the process of economic development is very complex, as it depends on large number of variables such as political system, socio economic structure, capital accumulation (both physical and human), trade, price fluctuations, and income distribution, and even more on geographical characteristics. As such, while export oriented industrialization contributes to economic growth, it is not necessarily indispensable to the growth and development of developing countries. As explained in this essay, EOI can be one of the key strategies to register economic growth. And in order for it to function effectively it has to be supported by appropriate components of the policy like: infant industry protection strategy, competition policy, export promotion strategy and others. More specifically, it requires well functioning and well integrated macroeconomic policies like: trade policy, industrial policy, exchange rate policy, investment policy, tariff policy and others. Government intervention also plays a key role in making the export oriented industrialization effective for economic development. Examined empirical evidences also reveal that Export-oriented Industrialization was particularly the characteristic of the economic development of the Asian Tigers: Hong Kong, South Korea, Taiwan and Singapore in the post World War II period . In addition to Asian Tigers, evidences also tell how EOI strategy contributed for the economic development of US, Germany and others, who are now in developed world category. However, though the role of export oriented industrialization in economic development is undeniable, countries have to also carefully consider its share in the gross domestic product, as larger export dependence has a negative effect on economic growth.
Friday, September 20, 2019
How Theories Obstruct Or Assist Practice Social Work Essay A requirement for Social Work Training is to ensure that the teaching of theoretical knowledge, skills and values is based on [students] application to practice (NHS, 2002 p.3). In response to the death of baby Peter, the Social Work Taskforce published fifteen recommendations including social work degrees requiring a greater focus on linking theory to practice (DCSF, 2009 p.18). This increased emphasis between theory and practice, will be considered in this essay, by discussing if theories of human growth and development obstruct or assist social workers practice. It is important to recognise that there are a vast amount of human growth and development theories, which cover the life span, although one assumption is that they only relate to childhood. This essay, in considering how theories obstruct or assist practice, will draw on those relating to working with older people. To clarify, this essay will use the word theory to mean both grand theories (those borrowed from other disciplines such as psychology, sociology etc) and middle range theories (those which combine the grand theories with practice experience) (Wilson et al, 2008 pp.106-107). The history of social work is helpful in understanding how theory became relevant for practice. The nineteenth century industrial revolution impacted on the community structures, which led to concerns over social unrest and disorder. These concerns influenced the growth of the social sciences with the idea being to understand and change society. Howe states, as new theories and explanations of human behaviour were generated by psychologists, so new social work theories and practices arose (Howe, 2009 p.17). The Charity Organisation Society (COS), founded in 1869, embraced the psychological theories in their charitable work. COS initially resisted any formal education for charity workers preferring supervision in the job. However, worries over the standard of staff and the impact of the job on them, together with the desire to be recognised as professionals in the social field initiated them to set up formal social work education (Howe, 2009; Payne, 2005b; Jones, 1996 p.191). The value of teaching human growth and development theories to social work students is still recognised today in university courses. Teaching on theory is included in the education as it is seen to legitimise social work, giving the social worker assurance, significance and understanding in their work without any taint of meddling (Jones, 1996 p.193). The use of theory helps the practitioner to feel that their views are knowledgeable and grounded (Milner and OByrne, 2002). Seckers research on social workers students found that those who had a comprehensible understanding of theory were more likely to be approachable and responsive with their service users, sharing their theoretical suggestions with the person (Howe, 2009; Payne, 2005a). Alongside this, is the professionalism a theoretical knowledge gives to social work (Howe, 2009). Thompson (2010) argues that other professionals and service users will be more confident in a social worker who is able to demonstrate that their work is based on a theoretical framework, thus showing skills to comprehend and make sense of the service users situation, rather than one who conjectures. Walker states, it is important that social workers have an understanding of human development to work effectively with other disciplines and to demonstrate a professional literacy commensurate with their status (2010, pp.xiv-xv). An example of this is a social worker working within a Community Mental Health Team alongside Psychiatrists and Community Psychiatric Nurses who advocate the medical model and its emphasis on diagnostics and cures (Parrish, 2010 p.10). Working in this setting does not mean that the social worker needs to ignore a psychosocial perspective. To advocate for service use rs effectively, the social worker needs to understand both the medical and psychosocial perspectives, as Parrish states it necessitate[s] the professional equivalent of being bilingual in being able to understand both perspectives simultaneously (Parrish, 2010 p.10). In 1992, Hindmarshs research on social work graduates, showed that an understanding of theory did provide the graduates with confidence. However, Hindmarsh argued that this confidence did not continue in practice as graduates viewed the use of theory as just a tool to justify their actions or provide accountability to their management (Payne, 2005a). Thompson argues that the professionalism of the social worker is being impacted on by what he describes as managerialism (2010, p.51). Thompson explains that governments budgeting tactics through performance indicators is pushing local government to meet targets. This is filtered down the management structure, so that middle managers are dictating what is required and should be implemented by social workers, in order to achieve the targets. Although social workers are dedicated to the use of theory in their practice, managerialism has led to them lacking professional confidence (2010 p.51). It is argued that theory is too complicated and restricts spontaneity, therefore it is pointless for practice. Instead a more realistic model of using facts about the person, an understanding of the law and practical skills (common sense) is more effective for social work practice (Parrish, 2010; Walker and Crawford, 2010). This view has been strongly argued against, as Coulshed states, theoryless practice does not exist; we cannot avoid looking for explanations to guide our actions, while research has shown that those agencies which profess not to use theory offer a non problem solving, woolly and directionless service (1991, p.8). Some theories become so familiar and accepted that they become incorporated into everyday life and language, for example, Anna Freuds defence mechanisms and Daniel Levinsons mid-life crisis. By the fact that these theories become so socially accepted and embedded into everyday language (described as informal theory), it is difficult for a social worker to avoid using it in their practice. Thompson argues, some sort of conceptual framework (and therefore theory) is therefore inevitable (2010, p.7). Our own life experience does not provide us with sufficient knowledge to be able to help others. It can cause us to filter assessments through our own experience, which may be prejudicial but we could be unaware of this. An advantage of having a theoretical understanding of human growth and development is that it gives us a broader view than our individual life experience and balances decision-making (Walker and Crawford, 2010). Research has shown that social workers have found it difficult or are unaware of how they apply theory to practice (Tanner and Harris, 2008; Smid and Van Krieken, 1984). Therefore, work is a routine procedure for social workers if they do not have an understanding of theory (Parton, 1996, p.92). Social worker education is blamed for this difficulty with universities either being too theoretical, or too practical, whichever emphasis taken, it results in making theory and practice appear as separate entities (Smid and Van Krieken, 1984). The different theoretical approaches to human growth and development can appear confusing to the social worker, as each stress different areas as a reason for the persons situation. An illustration of this is the process of ageing: a biological perspective is to focus on the physical impact of a person growing older; a psychological view however, will focus on the deterioration of cognitive functioning; and finally a sociological perception will look at the social structures and the older persons place in that structure. As Hughes states, The images created by the various theoretical perspectives biological, psychological, sociological, political-economic are intrinsically different and create quite distinct pictures of the experience and social condition of older people (Hughes, 1995 p.18). Although each approach emphasises different areas, they all potentially provide something helpful and equally true (Milner and OByrne, 2002 p.81). With each approach providing something useful in understanding the persons situation the social worker needs to support the service user in finding which one with be most helpful to use (Milner and OByrne, 2002). However, rather than seeing this confusion as a hindrance to social work practice, this is what is central to social work. It is what gives it its value and importance because it specialises in situations where there are no known solutions (Statham and Kearney cited in Howe, 2009 p.190). It is the ability of the social worker to draw together the various theoretical perspectives in order to prepare a realistic and balanced care plan. There are development theories that are in direct conflict and/or dismiss each other such as Disengagement and Activity theories (Hughes, 1995; Howe, 2009). Disengagement Theory proposes that as someone ages they naturally disengage from certain social roles and functions, which ensures continuity of the system and equilibrium between different social groups (Hughes, 1995 pp.25-26). Disengagement was viewed as fulfilling for the older person and providing well-being, as it freed them from certain roles and functions that they no longer were able to fulfill, such as retiring from work, thereby, helping people to age well (Hughes, 1995; Bond et al, 2007). Activity theory completely opposes this idea and proposes that remaining actively involved in the community, both physically and mentally, provided well-being and satisfaction for the person (Walker and Crawford, 2010). Both theories provide definite explanation for the difficulties in getting old. The activity / disengagement debate has led to a number of further theories either trying to resolve the conflict, such as Gubriums socio-environmental approach, or challenge one theory to support the other, such as Cowgills modernisation approach (Lynott and Lynott, 1996). The practitioners dilemma is similar, should they align themselves with one or disregard both theories. A danger for the social worker is that s/he uses theory as a way to discover the truth or ultimate solution for the person (Thompson, 2010, pp.11-12). Lee argues against this, theoretical statements are the general principles that give rise to hypotheses, or speculative facts (1985, p.22). No person or situation is exactly the same which means neither can there be a universal solution or theory to fit all (Lees and Lees, 1975). A postmodern view is that truth cannot be found in one solitary theory, instead a plethora of truths for a particular situation can be found in using multiple theories (Milner and OByrne, 2002). As Pease and Fook cited in Howe state, There are many perspectives and voices and it is now recognised that they all need to be heard if the complex nature of truth is to be established (2009, p.191). Walker (2010) argues that a persons growth and development cannot be clarified by one theory. Parrish takes this further by stating that if a social workers practice were based on one theory it would prove woefully inadequate (2010, p.6). An alignment to one specific theoretical viewpoint can be dangerous, as the social worker is unable to recognise important issues that do not correspond with that particular viewpoint. For example Eriksons eight stages of development although helpful in understanding age related activities, has been criticised for its male, patriarchal stance in lacking awareness of other factors that can impact on development, such as gender, race, social class etc. (Thompson, 2010; Parrish, 2010). This highlights the value of recognising and critically analysing a number of theories in a situation, rather than believing one is more superior to another. As Thompson illustrates, the reflective practitioner being a tailor cutting the cloth of the knowledge base to pr oduce a closely tailored solution to the practice challenges being faced, rather than looking for a ready-made, off-the-peg solution (2010, p.16). A social worker may consider amalgamating a number of theories so to provide one combined theory, which Payne describes as eclecticism (Thompson, 2010 and Payne, 2005a p.31). Eclecticism has been criticised as an inexperienced way to use theory (Payne, 2005a). Instead the current view is to take a critical, reflective approach, using the persons history, behaviour and circumstances. Theories should be considered and weighed up as to their usefulness for each person (Adams et al, 2009; Thompson, 2010). Using a range of theories allows a multi-dimensional understanding of situations to develop and enables the limitations of one perspective to be offset by the advantages of another (Tanner and Harris, 2008 p.37). By taking a critical and reflective approach to theory and practice this can help the social worker make sense of the differences and disagreements between the various human growth and development theories (Payne, 2005a). A critical and reflective approach, allows the social worker to value and accept the variety of theories applicable for a particular situation (Adams, 2009). As Fook argues, critical and postmodern practice therefore involves a recognition of different ways of knowing, in particular a reflexive ability to engage with changing situations (2002, p.44). According to Thompson (2010), the main significant purpose for applying theory to practice is that it defines our practice. Misca states, knowledge of human growth and development plays an essential part in assessing, planning and intervening in a successful, positive way in peoples lives (2009 p.116). Fook describes using theories, as our intellectual tools, rather than as rule books as they assist and direct practice (2002, p.69; Walker and Crawford, 2010). This means that a theoretical knowledge can provide a practitioner with the understanding and explanation of a persons behaviour and situation. Consideration of Bowlbys Attachment theory with aging and dementia will be used to illustrate this. Bowlby stated that typically within the first 9 months of a persons life, they develop an attachment to their primary caregiver. Ainsworth, working alongside Bowlby, extended attachment theory. Through the Strange Situation trials, she proposed three types of attachment behaviours: Anxious /Avoidant, Anxious/Resistant and Securely Attached (Parrish, 2010). Although Bowlby did not carry out any studies on older people, he did argue that, attachment behaviour continues to play a necessary role into adulthood (Browne and Shlosberg, 2006 p.135). It has only been since the late 20th century, that Bowlbys attachment theory has been applied throughout the human lifespan and in particular to dementia (Bond et al, 2007). Bowlby suggested that when adults are unwell or under stress then attachment behaviour is likely (Browne and Shlosberg, 2006). Miesen, an advocator for attachment theory, researched the general behaviours of people with dementia. He likened a demented state of crying, clinging and calling as being in Ainsworths strange situation (Bond et al, 2007). Miesen researched parent fixation which is when a person with dementia believes that his/her deceased parent is still alive. His study concluded that dementia triggers attachment behaviours (Browne and Shlosberg, 2006). De Vries and McChrystal state, Bowlbys attachment theory has provided a conceptual and empirical framework for examining some behaviours of people with dementia and provided a means of interpreting them in terms of responses to loss (2010, p288). A theoretical knowledge also provides solutions for approaches of intervention, to assist the service user and enables the practitioner to anticipate future issues (Parrish, 2010). Continuing to use the above example, two new ways of working within an attachment theory framework have recently been developed to assist working with people with dementia: simulated presence therapy (SPT) and doll therapy (Browne and Shlosberg, 2006). The difficulty for the social worker is that separate theories can lead to different approaches to practice, so that the social worker has to choose which is the right one (Walker and Crawford, 2010). Milner and OBryne (2002) argue that the theory, which provides the greatest insight and leads to an approach that meets the service users objectives, is the one to use. The problem with this is who decides which is the theory that gives the greatest insight, is it the social worker or managerial/government decision. If it is the latter then it disempowers the social worker. However, if it is the former it is dependent on the knowledge base of the social worker. Beckett and Taylor explain, Fortunately or unfortunately, no theory about human life can ever be completely objective or value free (2010 p.4). Human growth and development theories have been criticised for reflecting the dominant beliefs of the theorists society. As Thompson states, Theorising is by no means a pure activity, detached from the reality of the social and political world (1995, p.32). For example, Erikson, Levinson and Havighursts theories on adult stages of development have all been criticised This essay has noted some theories of human growth and development in aging. However, it is also important for a Social Worker in his/her practice to acknowledge that service users will have their own ideas to explain their circumstances and behaviour. As Gubrium and Wallace explain, We find that theory is not something exclusively engaged in by scientists. Rather, there seem to be two existing worlds of theory in human experience, one engaged by those who live the experiences under consideration, and one organised by those who make it their professional business systematically to examine experience (cited in Tanner and Harris, 2008 p.36). Erickson emphasised the need to look at a person as an individual and therefore, a social worker in his/her practice needs to take this into consideration, rather than trying to get a theory to fit the persons situation (Milner and OByrne, 2002). It is important for the social worker to be aware of anti-oppressive practice in considering a theoreti cal framework by not taking into account the service users views. S/he needs to be aware of his/her professional power and also the need to empower the service user in making decisions and changes (McDonald, 2010; Thompson, 2010). As shown, having a theoretical understanding of human growth and development can assist social work practice by legitimising the work done, giving the social worker confidence and providing a framework for the work. However, it is not the theoretical understanding itself that hinders practice but instead the application of the theory. Theory in practice is hindered by managerialism, the danger of anti-oppressive practice and limitations of social workers knowledge and experience .
Thursday, September 19, 2019
Ethics in Physical Therapy Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã One of the most rapidly growing occupations in the United States today is Physical Therapy. The United States Department of Labor has projected 23,000 unfilled physical therapist positions in the year 2000 and a lack of qualified physical therapists to fill them (www.apta.org). While Physical Therapy grows rapidly, questions of ethics in this field have also grown in large quantities. Physical therapy is the treatment of disease through physical means, including light, heat, sound waves, electricity, magnetic fields, and exercise (www.byu.edu). This means that therapists use many different forms to treat people, and treating people can be a large challenge because of all the different possibilities that could occur with the different treatments. Physical Therapy is a very rewarding and lucrative profession if the problems that come along with the job are dealt with in a capable manner. The main problem with Physical Therapy is the problem of the ethics of the profession. There are many ethical conflicts such as how to charge based on your services, and what types of services to give to each individual patient. To guide physical therapists in their decision making the American Physical Therapy Association came up with a code of ethics for itÃ¢â¬â¢s members to set their standards to work by. Their members are required to work by this code and are also required to maintain ethical practices. The first principle in their code is to respect the rights and dignity of all individuals. This includes all patients, employees, and co-workers. The second principle is to comply with all of the laws and regulations governing the practice of physical therapy. Physical therapists learn these laws in school before becoming a therapist. The third principle is that they must accept responsibility for their actions and exercise sound judgment. Every therapist must own up to their mi stakes, and take responsibility for their patients. The fourth principle is that they must maintain and promote high standards for physical therapy practice, education, and research. No therapist should ever compromise his or her beliefs for any reason. The fifth principle is that they must seek remuneration for their services that is deserved and reasonable. This means that they should be paid for the work that they do, but that the pay shoul... ...hysical Therapy. V.77 N.11 (Nov. 1997): p1628. EbscoHost. MasterFILE Elite. A57797069. Owens Lib.Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Maryville, MO. 18 Mar. 2000. Grover, James. Physical Therapy. 1999. Brigham Young University: Physical Therapy Department. 18 Mar. 2000. Ã¢â¬Å"How to Fix Therapy Services?Ã¢â¬ McKnightÃ¢â¬â¢s Long Term Care News. V.20 N.14 Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã (Oct. 6, 1999): p.59 Owens Lib. Maryville, MO. 18 Mar. 2000. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Physical Therapy: Making a Difference. American Physical Therapy Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Association. 18 Mar. 2000. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã
Wednesday, September 18, 2019
Biography of Richard Millhouse Nixon Richard Millhouse Nixon, 37th president of the United States (1969-1972) was born on January 9, 1913 in Yorba Linda, California. Nixon was one of the most controversial politicians of the twentieth century. He built his political career on the communist scare of the late forties and early fifties, but as president he achieved dÃ ©tente with the Soviet Union and opened relations with the People's Republic of China. His administration occurred during the domestic upheavals brought on by the civil rights movement and the Vietnam War. He was re-elected in 1972 by an overwhelming margin, but less than two years later, he was forced to become the first man to resign the presidency amid the scandal and shame of Watergate. He staged a difficult political comeback in 1968, after purportedly retiring from politics, and by the end of his life, he had shed some of the scourge of Watergate and was again a respected elder statesman, largely because of his record on foreign policy. He died on Febr uary 22, 1994. His writings include three autobiographical works, Six Crises (1962), RN: the Memoirs of Richard Nixon (1978), and In the Arena (1990). Early Political Career Nixon came from a southern-California Quaker family, where hard work and integrity were deeply rooted and heavily emphasized. Always a good student, he was invited by Harvard and Yale to apply for scholarships, but his older brother's illness and the Depression made his presence close to home necessary, and he was attended nearby Whittier College, where he graduated second in his class in 1934. He went on to law school at Duke University, where his seriousness and determination won him the nickname "Gloomy Gus." He graduated third in his class and applied for jobs with both large Northeastern law firms and the FBI His applications were all rejected, however, and he was forced to go home to southern California, where his mother helped get him a job at a friend's local law firm. At the outbreak of World War Two, Nixon went to work briefly for the tire-rationing section the Office of Price Administration in Washington, DC, and eight months later, he joined the Navy and was sent to the Pacific as a supply officer. He was popular with his men, and such an accomplished poker player that he was able to send enough of his comrades-in-arms' money back home to help fund his fir... ...he man he had appointed to replace Spiro Agnew as Vice-President. Soon after taking office Ford granted Nixon a pardon for any crimes he might have committed as president. Unlike some of his aides, Nixon never went to jail. After resigning the presidency, Nixon sought to portray himself as an elder statesman. He published and five books on US foreign policy: The Real War (1980), Real Peace (1983), No More Vietnams (1985), 1999: Victory without War (1988), Seize the Moment (1992), and Beyond Peace (1994). By the 1990s, much of the scandal had been forgotten, and Nixon was again hailed as a genius of foreign policy and jokingly considered a possible Republican presidential candidate. T-shirts and bumperstickers appeared bearing the motto "He's tan, he's rested, and he's ready: Nixon in '92." References Aitken, Jonathan. Nixon, A Life. Regnery Publishing, 1993 Ambrose, Stephen E. Nixon : The Education of a Politician, 1913-1962. Simon and Schuster, 1988. Genovese, Michael A. The Nixon Presidency: Power and Politics in Turbulent Times. Greenwood Press, 1990 Hoff-Wilson, Joan. Nixon Reconsidered. BasicBooks, 1994. WGBH Boston. Nixon (videorecording). PBS Video, 1990.
Tuesday, September 17, 2019
Spiritual Seminary, which trained him to be a priest. While he was there, he s secretly became infatuated with reading the work of Karl Marx, Ã¢â¬Å"Communist Manifesto. Ã¢â¬ Josef interest steadily increased, and in 1 899 he claimed he was expelled from the Seminary for Mar exist Propaganda. After Stalin left the school, he joined the militant Bolshevik wing of the Marxism t Social Democratic movement, which was led by Vladimir Lenin. Stalin became an UN detergent political revolutionary who took part in strikes, propaganda distribution, bank heists, and ordered assassinations.He was arrested multiple times and was ultimately ex lied to, and imprisoned in, Siberia. He escaped often times, and was moved up in the rank s of the Bolsheviks. Josef married his first wife, Catering Spavined, in 1906. She died of typhus in 1907, shortly after their son, Yak, was born. Yak died in 1943 as a prisoner of G errand In World War II. Stalin's second wife, Endeared Alluvial, was a daughter of a non there Russian Revolutionary with whom he had several children. This marriage did not last Eng though, ad Endeared committed suicide a few years later.In 1 912 Vladimir Lenin, who was exiled in Switzerland, appointed Stalin to seer eve on the first Central Committee of the Bolshevik Party. The Bolsheviks seized Russ IA in 1917 and was made the Soviet Union in 1922. Lenin was the first leader of the Soviets, a ND by this point Stalin became secretary general of the Central Committee of the Communist Party, with which he gained political support. In 1924, Lenin died and Stalin won a power struggle against Nikolas Buchanan, Level Kinsmen, Alexei Rooky, Mikhail Tomboy, Leon Trotsky, a ND Gregory Genevieve.By the late 1 sass, Stalin was in control of the Communist Party and was the dictator of the Soviet Union. The Soviet Union underwent several longtime plans launched by Stalin to tar misinform it from a overstocking country to an industrial giant. He insisted on a govern interconnec ted economy and on the government taking control farms. Citizens who refuse d to comply with Josephs orders were brutally murdered or exiled. Millions of people died of FAA mine because of the agriculture control. Stalin ruled by striking terror in citizens and possible opponents.He set up a s secret police and encouraged citizens to spy on one another in order to eliminate an Y possible uprising or opposition. Millions Of people were forced into labor or killed if Joss pep considered them a threat. Joseph essentially built a cult around himself by renaming cite s in his honor, having textbooks rewritten to promote him, and tying himself into the Soviet's culture. In 1 939, Joseph Stalin and Doll Hitler signed a nonaggression pact. Stalin the annexed many countries, including Poland, Romania, Estonia, Latvia, Finland and Lithuania.Stalin was warned by America, Britain, and the KGB about a possible break of the Insensitive pact, but chose to ignore the advice. In 1 941, the Nazis inv aded the USSR and approached the capital, Moscow. Stalin ordered any supplies that could be beneficial to the e enemy to be destroyed. In 1 942, the Soviet Army defeated the Germans at the Battle Of SST Leningrad and drove them out of Russia. After this, Stalin took part in conferences with the A Lies. Although Stalin was a loyal ally in WI, he did not abandon the idea of a Com monist empire. Joseph Stalin Spiritual Seminary, which trained him to be a priest. While he was there, he s secretly became infatuated with reading the work of Karl Marx, Ã¢â¬Å"Communist Manifesto. Ã¢â¬ Josef interest steadily increased, and in 1 899 he claimed he was expelled from the Seminary for Mar exist Propaganda. After Stalin left the school, he joined the militant Bolshevik wing of the Marxism t Social Democratic movement, which was led by Vladimir Lenin. Stalin became an UN detergent political revolutionary who took part in strikes, propaganda distribution, bank heists, and ordered assassinations.He was arrested multiple times and was ultimately ex lied to, and imprisoned in, Siberia. He escaped often times, and was moved up in the rank s of the Bolsheviks. Josef married his first wife, Catering Spavined, in 1906. She died of typhus in 1907, shortly after their son, Yak, was born. Yak died in 1943 as a prisoner of G errand In World War II. Stalin's second wife, Endeared Alluvial, was a daughter of a non there Russian Revolutionary with whom he had several children. This marriage did not last Eng though, ad Endeared committed suicide a few years later.In 1 912 Vladimir Lenin, who was exiled in Switzerland, appointed Stalin to seer eve on the first Central Committee of the Bolshevik Party. The Bolsheviks seized Russ IA in 1917 and was made the Soviet Union in 1922. Lenin was the first leader of the Soviets, a ND by this point Stalin became secretary general of the Central Committee of the Communist Party, with which he gained political support. In 1924, Lenin died and Stalin won a power struggle against Nikolas Buchanan, Level Kinsmen, Alexei Rooky, Mikhail Tomboy, Leon Trotsky, a ND Gregory Genevieve.By the late 1 sass, Stalin was in control of the Communist Party and was the dictator of the Soviet Union. The Soviet Union underwent several longtime plans launched by Stalin to tar misinform it from a overstocking country to an industrial giant. He insisted on a govern interconnec ted economy and on the government taking control farms. Citizens who refuse d to comply with Josephs orders were brutally murdered or exiled. Millions of people died of FAA mine because of the agriculture control. Stalin ruled by striking terror in citizens and possible opponents.He set up a s secret police and encouraged citizens to spy on one another in order to eliminate an Y possible uprising or opposition. Millions Of people were forced into labor or killed if Joss pep considered them a threat. Joseph essentially built a cult around himself by renaming cite s in his honor, having textbooks rewritten to promote him, and tying himself into the Soviet's culture. In 1 939, Joseph Stalin and Doll Hitler signed a nonaggression pact. Stalin the annexed many countries, including Poland, Romania, Estonia, Latvia, Finland and Lithuania.Stalin was warned by America, Britain, and the KGB about a possible break of the Insensitive pact, but chose to ignore the advice. In 1 941, the Nazis inv aded the USSR and approached the capital, Moscow. Stalin ordered any supplies that could be beneficial to the e enemy to be destroyed. In 1 942, the Soviet Army defeated the Germans at the Battle Of SST Leningrad and drove them out of Russia. After this, Stalin took part in conferences with the A Lies. Although Stalin was a loyal ally in WI, he did not abandon the idea of a Com monist empire.
Monday, September 16, 2019
Conflict theory is based entirely in power and how those in power do all they can to hold the majority of the population down and to keep them from gaining power, so as to secure their own position. Conflict theorists would say that obesity is a product of the living conditions, stress and poor quality of food and health education. Obesity is seen as deviant and problematic and therefore conflicts with the ideal society of being fit and thin. The more obese the less power and stature you have in society. Conflict theorists might say that those that are in power, law makers, Fortune 500 CEOÃ¢â¬â¢s, for example, make cheaper good, make goods more unhealthy, and so the poor might only be able to afford cheap, unhealthy bulk food and become susceptible to obesity. Conflict theorists might say that food education might be controlled by larger government forces, for example the Food and Drug Administration and the United States Department of Agriculture. These are the members of society who look out for their own bottom line and corporate interests from sponsors and lobbyists. They might limit education about food intake and what is healthy and unhealthy, they might suggest certain foods like beef or milk is healthy to appeal to the dairy industry, to keep our politicians funded with billions of dollars in donations. There is also the argument that by keeping people obese it allows for discrimination at work, in which they must work harder at getting raises because they cannot keep up with their thinner counterparts. Obese people have difficulty with their social lives and early death and numerous health complications that might further ensure the status of the powerful few at the top of the food chain. The Structural Functionalism theory argument is that obesity is a necessary part of society. FunctionalistÃ¢â¬â¢s major argument is that everything that exists must have a meaning and must be useful towards society as a whole. Functionalists might argue that obese people will bring attention to the problems in health care and obesity might help in teaching those in power more our emotional connection to food and to further explore manÃ¢â¬â¢s relationship with eating and nourishment. The obese population might inspire others to be healthier and might inform and educate society as a whole about the dangers of obesity and its overall impact. Functionalist would say that to the obese would be bring an overall benefit to society. The symbolic interactionist theory demonstrates the effects towards obese people when they feel they are being perceived in a negative or unflattering way. The verbal and nonverbal cues that a fit or thin person demonstrates might create an obese person to withdraw even further from society and or turn to food as a coping mechanism thereby increasing weight. Obesity is most correlated to social discrimination and a feeling of being unworthy or weak due to the inability to resist food, for personal and emotional reasons. Obesity in society is a symbol of unhealthiness and unattractiveness which produces feelings of disgust, but obesity is a symbol in and of itself because our society makes us associate those things with obesity. There are cultures and societies around the world where being obese means status and power and it was seen as sexy and desirable. Everything we do is socially constructed as is our reactions and treatment of obese people.
Sunday, September 15, 2019
Jose De Ribera, Martydom of Saint Bartholomew, ca. 1639. Oil on canvas * Ribera uses this piece to scorn idealization of any kind. * The drama and brutality expresses the harsh times of the Counter-Reformation. * We notice CaravaggioÃ¢â¬â¢s influence on Ribera through the naturalism and drama used in Martydom of Saint Bartholomew and CaravaggioÃ¢â¬â¢s many works. Francisco De Zurbaran, Saint Serapion, 1628. Oil on canvas * Serapion was a British martyr who was supposed to fight the Moors in Spain, who ended up being butchered in Algeria. * What makes this piece different is a complete lack of violence. There is no blood or any sign of a wound, as we can see his white robe is spotless. * Unlike most martyr paintings that make the subject seem heroic and brave, Zurbaran captures the true helplessness of the saint, winning the viewerÃ¢â¬â¢s emotions. Diego Velazquez, Water Carrier of Seville, ca. 1619. Oil on canvas * This piece captures the social issue of the rich and poor of Spain during the time. * The contrast of dark and light shows elements of Caravaggio, who Velaquez had studied. * Although this scene shows everyday life, the care it conveys suggests a deeper meaning. Diego Velazquez, Surrender of Breda, 1634-1635. Oil on canvas * Velazquez aided Philip IV in regaining power by using Surrender of Breda as propaganda. * This piece was not only a symbol of Spanish nationalism, but a tribute to Ambrogio Spinola, the Spanish general of this war. * VelazquezÃ¢â¬â¢s relationship with Spinola made Surrender of Breda especially historically accurate. Diego Velazquez, King Philip IV of Spain (Fraga Philip), 1644. Oil on canvas * Velazquez portrays Philip as a military leader by focusing attention on his marvelous red and silver campaign dress. * The painting is also known as Fraga Philip, because it was painted in the town of Fraga in Aragon. * This portrait was just another example of VelazquezÃ¢â¬â¢s propagandistic images used for King Philip IV. Diego Velazquez, Las Meninas, 1656. Oil on canvas * The use of depth and content in this piece helped prove Las Meninas as VelazquezÃ¢â¬â¢s masterpiece. * The mirror on the back wall seems to be the reflection of the king and queen, meaning they are being painted on the other side of the room. * Velazquez actually painted himself as the artist in the room. Peter Paul Rubens, Elevation of the Cross, 1610. Oil on panel * Rubens used elements both from the Renaissance and of the Italian Baroque to create the first Pan-European style, as seen in Elevation of the Cross. * The tension is emotional and physical, as seen in ChristÃ¢â¬â¢s face and the grief of his followers. * The drama is intensified by the strong use of light and dark. Peter Paul Rubens, drawing of Laocoon, ca. 1600-1608. Black-and-white chalk drawing with bistre wash * The predominantly black chalk drawing shows RubensÃ¢â¬â¢ study of classical representation of the human form. * This piece is obviously a revisit of the marble sculpture that depicted Laocoon and his sons breaking free from serpents. * Rubens had a big focus on mastering the human body, which led him to copy classical works of earlier master artists, such as this piece. Peter Paul Rubens, Arrival of Marie deÃ¢â¬â¢ Medici at Marseilles, 1622-1625. Oil on canvas * The painting depicts Marie arriving in France after a long voyage from Italy. * The women waiting for her is an allegory personified to represent France, and the goddesses, Neptune and the Nereids (daughters of the sea god Nereus), represent the sky and the sea rejoicing her safe arrival. * The surfaces are enriched with decoration to further bring the painting together. Peter Paul Rubens, Allegory of the Outbreak of War, 1638. Oil on canvas * The beautiful human forms and energy that take away attention from the chaos of this piece is a recurrent theme in RubensÃ¢â¬â¢ other works. * The Thirty YearsÃ¢â¬â¢ War was RubensÃ¢â¬â¢ reason to create Allegory. * The woman clothed in black, deprived of her jewels and ornaments is an unhappy Europe. Anthony Van Dyck, Charles I Dismounted, ca. 1635. Oil on canvas * Charles I turns his back on his attendants as he looks over his domain. * His location on higher ground gives us the idea he is higher than all of his observers and followers. * The king impersonates as a noble man for a casual walk in the park, but no one can take their eyes off his regal poise. Hendrick Ter Brugghen, Calling of Saint Matthew, 1621. Oil on canvas * The naturalistic presentation of the subjects echoes the work of Caravaggio. * This piece differs from work of Caravaggio because the use of color, rather than extreme contrast of light and dark. * There is a definite claustrophobic effect as noticed by the figures being crammed into a well-lit room. Gerrit Van Honthorst, Supper Party, 1620. Oil on canvas * In this painting, Honthorst portrays the darker side of humanity. * The man on the right being fed by the woman is sometimes interpreted as a warning by Honthorst to avoid the sin of gluttony. * Honthorst frequently placed a hidden light source in his paintings, such as Supper Party, to work with violent dark and light effects. Frans Hals, Archers of Saint Hadrian, ca. 1633. Oil on canvas * The Archers were one of many militia groups that helped in liberating the Dutch Republic from Spain. * In this portrait, each man is a troop member yet individually different from the next. * The troop membersÃ¢â¬â¢ attire further helps create a certain rhythm to the piece. Frans Hals, The Women Regents of the Old MenÃ¢â¬â¢s Home at Haarlem, 1664. Oil on canvas * This piece captures the details of each sitter and their cultural characteristics. * The women seem to have different emotions all around, from complete disinterest to concern of their environment. * The monochromatic theme of this painting further adds to the paintingÃ¢â¬â¢s restraint. Rembrandt Van Rijn, Anatomy Lesson of Dr. Tulp, 1632. Oil on canvas * The studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ individual faces tell us each has different feelings and thoughts about the man being dissected. * Van Rijn diagonally placed the body to break away from the strict horizontal orientation found in traditional paintings. * Rembrandt chose to have the students all on the left side to highlight Dr. Tulp and the body.
Saturday, September 14, 2019
From the time of LincolnÃ¢â¬â¢s inauguration in 1860 to the final withdrawal of union troops from the South in 1877, the nation of America had been one of great revolutions. There was constant development in this time both socially and constitutionally. For instance, some constitutional developments that irrupted conflict were the secession of the confederate states, the Emancipation Proclamation, the three civil rights bills, and the reconstruction. Some social developments that caused conflict were the FreedmenÃ¢â¬â¢s Bureau, the Black Codes, and the Ku Klux Klan. It was a result of these developments that the Revolutions of the Civil War, Reconstruction, and the Redeemers would take place. The great change these revolutions brought about were vital in the development of this country One of the constitutional developments that caused a revolution during this time frame, had to do with the South Carolina Declaration of Causes of Secession, which is stated in Document A. The southerners felt that it was their constitutional right to own slaves and did not see a time when they should be required to give up that right. However, upon the election of Lincoln as President, the southerners felt threatened, and felt their slave holding rights were being threatened, and in an effort to protect these rights they chose to secede from the union. This action angered the President and many Republicans because they believed that it was unconstitutional for a state to secede. Senator John Sherman on the other hand believed that they gave the states too much power and rights in government that this is the reason the government being overthrown. One of the social developments that caused a revolution was the FreedmenÃ¢â¬â¢s Bureau. The FreedmenÃ¢â¬â¢s Bureau was supposed to give Homesteads to the freed slaves, but they failed to keep their promise, as stated in Document E. In document I the picture shows that even thought the freedmen were given freedom after the Civil, other groups such as the White League and the KKK still tried to suppress their rights as human citizens. For instance, the KKK would burn black-owned buildings and murder freedman to them from exercising their voting rights. Another development that caused a revolution was the Reconstruction Act.Ã Looking at Document F you can see that Senator Lot Morrill thinks that the Civil Rights Act of 1866 is revolutionary. But he was furious because there was already a revolution taking place and nobody knew or cared. The speech brought up many questions about what had to be fixed and what kind of revolution would occur. These are the many developments that brought on a revolution that helped or hurt the country. This is one of the revolutions that helped shape this country.
Friday, September 13, 2019
Failure to Thrive Syndrome Effects on the Physical and Cognitive Development of Children - Essay Example This research paper drew on current secondary data to establish the effects of FTT on the physical and cognitive development of children. Prior results were supported. It is anticipated that this research will contribute to the body of knowledge investigating the effects of FTT on children. Failure to thrive (FTT) in early childhood is associated with developmental delays and is conceded to be associated with under-nutrition. The term FTT was used to replace a description of a syndrome of delayed growth and development called the 'maternal deprivation syndrome' (Wright, 2000). FTT, also known as growth failure, is not an actual diagnosis in itself, rather a descriptive term to identify a child or adult who does not meet established standards of healthy growth. In general, the term FTT is used when growth appears to be low, or has decreased over a period of time (Bassali & Benjamin, 2006). Wright (2000) defines this low growth rate in terms of growth chart percentiles, a fall of two centile spaces indicating mild to moderate FTT, and of three centile spaces to indicate severe FTT. A recent definition of FTT includes low weight-for-age, low BMI, low conditional weight gain, and Waterlow's criterion for wasting (Olsen, Peterson, Skovgaard, Weil, Jorgenson, & Wright, 2006) . It is evident that a combination of measurements is required to ascertain nutritional growth delays, and current longitudinal research is investigating the strength of different criteria to differentiate FTT and its subsequent outcomes (Olsen et al., 2006). Due to current medical technology there appears to be an increase in the numbers of children surviving an extremely low birth weight (ELWB;The aim of this paper is to identify the long term physical and cognitive outcomes in children diagnosed as having failure to thrive (FTT). First, a general background of FTT will be outlined. Second, recent studies that have investigated cognitive and or physical affects of FTT with children shall be presented. Next a discussion will provide a synthesis of the findings and the implication for children who survive FTT. Finally, a conclusion shall make recommendations for future research.FTT can be conceptualized as a failure of a child to meet expected weight, height, developmental and well- being standards (Wright, 2000). Predominantly, the FTT child is relatively undernourished and does not show a temperament or constitutional pattern that would be considered as within the norm for a child of their age. Organic disease, abuse and neglect, deprivation (i.e., low socio-economic status), and under-nutrition are all possible causes of FTT.n series of USA reports dated between 1980-1989 attributed FTT to 1-5% of the hospital admissions of children less than a year old (Bassali & Benjamin, 2006). It was also estimated that about 10% of children receiving primary care exhibited signs and symptoms of FTT. Although, internationally, developing nations tend to have much more common rates of malnutrition as compare to the