Sunday, November 24, 2019
Donner Company Essays Donner Company Paper Donner Company Paper The company has specialized in making circuit boards for experimental devices and for pilot production runs. The basic work process can be divided into three important stages preparation, image transfer and fabrication. The companys president Edward Plumper believes that the company is more adept than its competitors at anticipating and resolving problems inherent in new designs and prototype production techniques due to highly skillful employees with substantial experience that the company has employed. It supplies the schoolmarm over bare copper (SMOOCH) boards under the made-to-order setup, resulting in high variety but low volume and the company charging a premium on its boards. However, this competitive edge has been compromised due to problems being faced in terms of productivity (caused bottlenecks, shifting bottlenecks and improper utilization of labor), quality of the product being manufactured (high rate of product return has been a major problem), and problems associated with the delivery of the final order (most of the shipments are dispatched towards the end of the month). These problems have begun to hamper the overall performance of the firm, and the management has started evaluating the companys position and different strategic policies to overcome those problems. Process Flower process comprises of 3 distinct stages: Preparation of image, Image transfer on the laminate panel and Fabrication into desired profile (size and shape). At the end of the fabrication stage, the circuit boards are inspected, checked and packed, and stored for dispatch in racks of 20 panels. Although some operations are modified for several orders each week depending on customer requirements, a typical work cycle is shown below. Donned had invested $80,000 in buying a technologically advanced CNN machine to perform the drilling and router functions. These processes can also be performed annually, hence, it becomes extremely important to decide when to use the machine and when to perform the action manually. During the drilling step of Image Transfer stage, the standard process involves the use of either automated CNN Drill or Manual drill to complete this step. Both these drills differ in terms of their setup and run times. For the profiling step of Fabrication, either Punch Press or automated CNN Router can be deployed for the process depending on the number of circuit boards in the order. We have done the breakable point analysis to decide the objective criteria for the use of the drills as well as profilers. Breakable point analysis Table 1 : Image Transfer stage: Drilling (CNN Drill vs.. Manual drill) CNN Drill Manual Drill Set up time for 1 order 240 15 Run time per hole (1 circuit board has 500 drilled holes) 0. 04 0. 08 Number of circuit boards N N Total time (setup time + Run time) 1 Breakable point: 240 + = 1 5 + N = 5. 92-6 Hence, we conclude that for orders with 6 or lesser units of circuit boards, there is no need to use the CNN machine for drilling purpose: Manual drilling will suffice. For orders above 6 units, the use of CNN drill will reduce the processing time as compared to manual drilling. Hence, in such a scenario it mak es more sense to employ CNN machine in the drilling process. Table 2 : Fabrication stage: Profiling (CNN Router vs.. Punch Press) CNN Router Punch Press Set up time for 1 order 150 50 Run time per circuit board 0. 5 1 Number of circuit boards N N Total time (Setup time + Run time) 150+0. 5*N 50+1 *N 200 Breakable point: 150+ 0. 5*N = 50+ As can be observed from the calculation above, the CNN Router should be put into use when the number of circuit boards is greater than 200 whereas Manual Drilling should be employed when the order size involves lesser than 200 circuit boards orders. This decision will prove economical for Donned both in terms of costs and processing times. However, we loosely analyze Exhibit 2 (mentioned in the case), to calculate the implied utilization of the CNN machine for drilling. Stage Demand (in hrs) Capacity (in hrs) Implied Utilization CNN Drill, Image Transfer 196 20*8 = 160 196/160 = 122. 5 % Assuming, no. Of working days in a month = 20; No. Of working hours per day = 8 Table 4 This utilization of CNN drill (100%) for orders of circuit boards more than 100 shows that it will not be feasible to use it for smaller orders (greater than 6) Bottleneck Analysis We analyses the Dry Film Photocopies operation to identify the bottleneck in the recess. It is very important to understand the true capacity of any process in order to prevent bottlenecks and enable uniform distribution of work load across stages. If we assume that the maximum number of circuit boards that the photocopies area can accommodate is only 50, Donned should ensure that no more than 50 units reach it from the drilling stage. Orders with more than 50 units will result in creation of a bottleneck at the Photocopies stage and the efficiency of the entire manufacturing process stands to be compromised because of the pile up of the work. Because of the existence of multiple steps during this stage (with separate set up and run times), it is critical to analyses each step in detail to identify the creation of bottleneck. In Appendix B, we calculate the capacity of each stage for 8, 80, 800 circuit boards. No. Of boards 8 80 800 panel prep 738. 46 5485. 71 15360 Laminate and Expose 174. 54 960 1745. 45 Develop 190. 099 1745. 45 9600 Table 5 We can see from the above table that the capacity of the laminate and expose operation is varying depending on the number of circuit boards in the order size. This is creating inconsistency in identifying bottle neck in the process. Productivity It is difficult to evaluate the shop productivity precisely, the production bottleneck shifted daily from one operation to another resulting from differences in order size, from orders bypassing some operations , due the differences in circuit designs and the four-day rush orders (3 such orders per week). Thus, a number of machines were idle more often than expected (they ran at low capacity), pointing to process design inefficiency. Some of the major issues identified are: Time spend in reworking parts that failed inspection or were returned was not included The time squired for moving the boards between operations was also not reflected in the cycle time this resulted from the current layout of the operations in the plant Due to huge uncertainty, it is difficult to predict productivity precisely. Several machines were idle more often than expected and the time schedule did not include time spent reworking parts which failed inspection and returned by customers. The Job methods used for production have a scope of improvement and time standards are not feasible for any Job on the shop. The machining operations are kept isolated and separate from etching, plating and imaging. This is because the plating and etching processes release acid vapors, which may lead to corrosion of machine tools. Similarly, the machining operations create dust and affect the other processes. Due to such isolation, time taken between these processes/ stages is high. The operation is sequential in nature. However, for drilling operations, the management hasnt done a breakable analysis to choose between manual labor or to use the CNN machine for the same purpose. No effective Job improvements and constant shifting of workers from Job to Job and other immediate problems. Raw materials are currently simmered for fulfilling expedited orders. This may lead to an order remaining as a Work in Progress (WIPE) order, in the firms manufacturing stream for longer duration than necessary. This is further delayed as it requires another shipment that is now consumed by rush orders. Recommendations: The distance between the Machining and Plating divisions should be minimized as a lot of in-process time goes in between. However, in order to ensure that the other processes are not affected by acid vapors and dust, physical barriers such as partitions or vapor resistant screens can be used. This will serve the purpose, and at the same time will reduce the time spent in between. Donned Company should focus on completing small orders for Smocks. This will help enhance productivity gains, optimum labor utilization and improved quality assurance as the firm possesses both the experience and confidence to assure a high degree of success. Small orders do not require frequent changes in design and hence can thoroughly reduce the Work in Progress. Focusing on only small-volume orders would require the firm to increase their raw material inventory levels and well-planned and timely acquiring, but would also decrease the inefficiency of the raw material simmering process from hampering the entire process altogether. The idle time of labor can also be reduced as such orders will utilize the high skill-sets of the Donned employees. Moreover, by making such uniform order types will make it much more sustainable for the firm to plan resources and share information. Quality This factor was critical to increase the sales volume and recently the company has faced failures in maintaining the quality standards. Some of the major issues identified are: Customer returns increased from 1% to 3%, nine-tenths of which was because of failure to complete mom of the required operations. Failure to formally define quality from the customers end this resulted in sometimes bad shipments being accepted and the good ones being rejected 7% of the boards were rejected at the pre-shipment inspection stage (as of September), 6% of which were because of incomplete operations and then reworked. Recommendations: No formal inspection standard was available: A standard order with design specifications like tolerance etc. Must be taken from the customer during order placement. These order instructions must be followed unanimously across the production line by different workers. This will reduce the loss of one tenth of boards that had been returned because they were out of tolerance. 6% of 7% boards returned because Donned had missed or failed to complete one or two of the required operations: This is due to lack of information coordination between different workers handling various operations. Currently at Donned, until a Job was shipped, the factory order and blueprint were kept by Flattery who gave them to any worker requiring information. This may lead to loss of vital information among workers regarding the order process. Hence, a structured process flow consisting all operations must be communicated by David Flattery to the four assistant supervisors who spent about 10% of their time instructing the workers. These assistant supervisors must ensure that this process flow is maintained and all operations are performed. The inspection at the last stage must ensure all the specifications mentioned by the customer in the order manual are satisfied. Delivery The company promised to deliver boards order within 3 weeks and orders greater than 1000 circuit boards within 5 weeks of placing the order. But the orders were being delayed by more than a week because of some of the issues identified low: The current shipping policy of the company emphasized on clearing all the work out of the shop prior to the end of each month and thus the shipments were mostly done in the second half of each month No inventory was kept by the company, thus for each new order that was logged in searching for the raw material took 2 days and procurement of the same took 4 days. Small interruptions with regular operations were created by the 4-day rush orders and the small orders (8 circuit boards or less) being routed through Arthur Defied 25% of the delays due to design re- specification / hold Recommendations Shipping policy existent exerts pressure on quality delivered: Current shipping policy of Donned is heavily loaded in the last week of a month. Since the new orders are typically taken in the start of the month with a promise of three week delivery and 6% out of 7% rejected products are shipped again within two-three days, most of the shipping happens in the last week of the month.
Thursday, November 21, 2019
Fashion Designer Employment Status Report - Assignment Example Realistically, since I am still a starter on this career, I will take on any opportunity that I will be offered to be able to showcase my ability. This will entail attending any beauty pageant that I am able to so that I can sharpen my designing skills. I am constantly seeking growth as an artist while trying to enjoy the process as much as I can. I feel that if I enjoy myself while working on a piece that I am designing, the pleasure will help me put in that extra effort that is necessary to make the piece truly polished. Even though I am so passionate, there are moments when I feel there is something holding me back. This often happens when I have conversations with my parents regarding my future. They always ask me questions that I do not want to answer due to the fact that they consider I do not take my life seriously. However, I am motivated to pursue my career in the fashion design industry due to the fact that this industry has grown up a lot in the past 20 years. It has become a large part of the creative industry hence competitive; as such there is no guarantee that one can be successful. Despite the fact that it is extremely hard to get established in this industry, there are some things that I can do to make myself get a better chance of getting noticed. I believe that I can work hard and produce great work at college hence recognition. The quality of my work is my biggest philosophy; I believe that this is the greatest tool that I have to boost me to achieve my goals. Currently, I am a student in the Academy of Art University majoring in Costume Design. Since joining this university, I have seen how to design in my own way so that I am comfortable designing each piece in the shortest amount of time but still keep developing my own style. In order to gain my own style is to take the next step. According to Careers in Fashion, p.1, fashion marketing careers are highly competitive, so the more you can learn from fashion school, the better prepared you will be.Ã At the moment I am a student and my next step is to gain experience in the business field.Ã
Wednesday, November 20, 2019
Chinese judiciary independence - Essay Example In a simpler way, making a complete and legitimate judgment has three procedures in China. Firstly, Public Security Organs apply the approval from Procuratorate to arrest suspects after they gather evidence. Second, Procuratorate would review the evidence. If they donÃ¢â¬â¢t think have enough evidence by the law to arrest criminal suspects, Procuratorate will disapprove the arrest. If they consider the evidence as enough, they will approve Public Security Organs to arrest the suspects. Then, Procuratorate transfers these cases to the court for prosecution. However, if Procuratorate consider that case should not prosecutable, then it drops the charges. Finally, the court makes a judicial decision and result after receiving cases from Procuratorate. Procuratorate can apply counter appeal if they donÃ¢â¬â¢t think the courtÃ¢â¬â¢s judicial decision is fair and correct. The case then gets a retrial or transfer to the higher court to review. The Supreme Peoples Court is the highest j udicial organ. After it makes judicial decisions, people cannot apply counter appeal. Disapproval Arrest rate, Disapproval Prosecution Rate, and the quantity of Counter-appeal earlier mentioned as the three representative and important data at the beginning, are all respectively produced from the above three judgment procedures. If the value of the data is large, that means the level of judiciary independence is high. If they are small, that means the level of judiciary independence is low. I will compare the three data sets from different periods and areas to draw a conclusion on whether the Chinese judiciary has had any change and improvement in the past two decades. Disapproval Arrest Rate is only produced after the Public Security Organs apply the approval to arrest suspects, but the Procuratorate fails to approve it. It is the proportion of the disapproval arrest quantity divided by the whole quantity of the application to arrest. In terms of time, the average of
Monday, November 18, 2019
Consulting report - Assignment Example Using this equation a web portal can be created where the same loyal customers can enter details of their shopping and the same staff can pick it out for them and pack it up to save time. This will not only save time for both and affect inventory and logistics positively, but also increase sales. In a research (Park, 1998) it was concluded that hi-tech baby boomers and older/physically challenged people were more prone to shop online. Another research (Hiser, 1999) confirmed that consumers other than those having dual incomes were a viable market segment. On a general basis buying groceries online was not dependent on the number of people in the house or incomes or gender. On the other hand buying behavior is more likely to be linked to the penetration of Internet and its usability among the shoppers (Ward, 2000). In todayÃ¢â¬â¢s age where there is an application for every website the company would be making more sales if people in the community are given the option of selecting their groceries on the go. Instead of traditional inventory management system, using the warehouse as the Master Organization and transferring all stocks from there on when stocks are out anywhere, RCE proposes to use a flexible and manageable system. Maintain a fixed stock at all stores for all or some inventories, while keeping all suppliers connected with the Master Organization. This helps put the customer in focus and also helps increase sales as projected to 1%. On an organizational level, if Bradford chooses to bring in revenue through a web portal, a managed inventory at all stores will speed up the process of picking and bagging the orders. For staff to be effective in managing the store of inventory on-site at each business unit(store), effective trainings can be given and management can be done with simple bar-code readers. Staff that has been stocking the locations and managing
Friday, November 15, 2019
Skin Diseases Affect On Peoples Health In modern society, more and more people are attacked by a variety of diseases. In medicine, relevant skin diseases seriously affect peoples health. As one of the common diseases, skin diseases such as leprosy, scabies, fungal disease, bacterial skin infections appear frequently. With the form, structure and functions changing, skin (including hair and armor) is influenced by external and internal factors, which produce the pathological process, and the corresponding produce all sorts of clinical successively performance. This is the cause of skin diseases. They have a high incidence of dermatitis, but relatively the symptoms are not serious, they often do not affect health, but a few heavier are even life-threatening. As a typical kind of skin diseases, photodermatoses are among the most common skin disorders in the world. Some of them acquired a particular importance in some regions because of their high frequency, severity, and also beÃâÃ cause of their different diagnostic and therapeutic apÃâÃ proaches. Photo medicine is a rapidly developing subspeÃâÃ cialty of dermatology concerned with skin diseases caused by radiation in the UV and visible spectra. Initiation or exacerbation of a rash after sun exposure that occurs in typical light-exÃâÃ posed areas is features that point toward a sunÃâÃ light-induced condition. The diagnosis of photosenÃâÃ sitive conditions may be difficult, and the use of investigations such as light, patch, and photopatch testing may be necessary to confirm the diagnosis.  Background and history With the development of modern medicine, every Teaching Hospital Department is in treatÃâÃ ment development dilemmas. For becoming involved in a new therapy, they still need to promise to be at the speculative stage. In the early 1990s, the problem about whether to actively become involved in the development of PDT for skin cancers was discussed by the Photobiology Unit within the Department of Dermatology in Dundee. As a new invest significant reÃâÃ sources, its so difficult for PDT to have a fairly certain outcome. By 1998, with the position changed and enough good quality data existed, treatment outcomes justiÃâÃ fied become involved in the development of both PDT and photodiagnosis (PD) for pre-malignant and malignant skin lesions. From a clinical reÃâÃ search and therapeutic point of view, the skin has two huge advantages. Firstly, it can be easily exÃâÃ amined with the naked eye, and secondly, it is the most accessible organ for investigation, biopsy an d treatment. Although PDT firmly has its roots at the beginning of the last century, it is only over the last 15 years that it has gained considerate popularity as a topical treatment of great promise for the treatment of skin cancers. In 1900 a German medical student Oscar Raab famously reported the concept of cell-induced death subsequent to light interacting with chemicals. In subsequent experÃâÃ iments he demonstrated that this effect was greater that with alcidine red alone, light alone or alcidine red exposed to light and then added to the paramecium. He postulated that in vitro toxicity occurred as a result of fluorescence caused by the transfer of energy from the light to the chemÃâÃ ical. Professor von Tappeiner soon after predicted the future of fluorescent substances in medicine. In 1904 von Tappeiner and Jodlbauer identified that oxyÃâÃ gen was integral component in photosensitisation reactions and termed the phrase photodynamic action in 1907. Since its incidental discovery in 1900 photodynamic therÃâÃ apy (PDT) and all aspects relating to it from mechanism of action, differing photosensitisers through to clinically based applications have been studied. Three components are required for PDT to occur; a photosensitiser, oxygen and a light source.  The Photobiology Unit (photobiology = the study of tight on living systems) has the purpose in Scotland of diagnosing tight sensitive skin disease (the photodermatoses) and the development of new forms of tight therapy (phototherapy). This Centre, which has been in existence since 1973, has always combined clinical skills (photodermatology) with a strong scientific base (photophysics) and laboratory biology (photobiology). This combination of applied science and clinical service in the same unit has proÃâÃ vided exciting research opportunities. Applied photo physics, through the Medical Physics Department, has dedicated members of staff whose only rote is optical physics. The necessary expertise in tight de-tivery and measurement is essential for predictable PDT and PD. Basic knowledge of sun and the skin Nm 254 290 320 360 X-rays UVC UVB UVA Visible light Figure 1 the place of ultraviolet radiation in the electromagnetic spectrum Figure 1 illustrates the relationship between ultraviolet radiation and the other types of non-ionizing radiation, such su natural light an infra-red radiation. It will be seen that ultraviolet radiation from the sun is divided into three different wavelengths-UVA, UVB, and UVC. The UVA waves are the longest and the UVC the shortest. At present, UVC is prevented from reaching the earths surface by the ozone layer, and is not therefore a natural hazard. There is, however, concern that the loss of the protective layer of ozone above the earths atmosphere will continue, and that in future more UVB might reach the earth. The main ultraviolet component of travel of natural that does each the earths surface is UVB. This penetrates the epidermis and reaches the more superficial layer of the dermisthe papillary dermis. UVA is also present in sunlight and ,in the early spring, a high proportion of natural sunlight in countries at latitudes 50 degrees or more north of south of the equator is composed of UVA. As the summer develops the proportion of UVA falls. UVA is the main, but not the only, wavelength found in the long tubes in UVA sunbeds. The effects of UVA go deeper into the skin than those of UVB. A very simple rule of thumb is that chronic over-exposure to UVB causes wrinkles, chronic over-exposure UVA causes saggi ng, and chronic over-exposure to both increases the risk of developing skin cancer. One of the important points of difference between UVB and UVA exposure is that acute over-exposure to UVB causes the redness and soreness recognized as sunburn. This is maximal 12-24 hours after the exposure has taken place, and is a useful warning that the skin should be protected for a few days until the redness has disappeared. The chemicals in sun-screens that protect against UVA and UVB can be divided into those that absorb ultraviolet radiation and those that reflect it away. The absorbing chemicals include para-aminobenzoic acid-PAMA- cinnamates, and salicylates, which protect against UVB alone. Benzophenones protect against both UVB and UVA and are also chemical sun-screeners. Photosensitivity The skin is our main defense against light, and in particular against ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Sometimes the skin reacts abnormally to light by becoming inflamed. This is called photosensitivity. There are many causes of photosensitivity. Some of the most important are below: Acute parts like Sunburn Xeroderma pigmentosum, Porphyria, Solar urticaria, Pellagra, and Photosensitivity disorders like Polymorphic light eruption, Juvenile spring eruption, Hydroa vacciniforme, actinic prurigo. Disorders exacerbated by light include Drug reactions, Lupus erythematosus, Rosacea Dariers disease Eczema (including actinic dermatitis and photo contact dermatitis Psoriasis Lichen planus. These reactions are either a direct toxic effect of light, or have an immunological component, either provoked by light alone or in conjunction with something else such as a drug. Diagnosis and treatment of common causes of photosensitivity The acute effects of sun on the skin are all too familiar. They are caused largely by medium wavelength UV radiation (UVB), but the dose required producing sunburn depends on: (1)An individuals skin type (2)The intensity of the radiation (greatest near the equator and around midday) (3)The length of exposure to UVB Mild sunburn causes erythema: more severe damage leads to extensive blistering and epidermal boss. Treatment makes little difference to the acute changes, but symptomatic relief can be obtained with soothing lotions, such as calamine. These include avoiding the midday sun, seeking shade, wearing appropriate clothing and eyewear, and using sunscreens, this is more important for those with skin type I and II than for those with a more radiation skin. There are several special examples which are listed and explained: (1) Porphyria: Some forms of porphyria are associated with photosensitivity. In a European child the most common is erythropoietic protoporphyria, whereas an adult presenting for the first time probably has porphyria cutanea tarda. The latter is often associated with alcoholic liver disease. Screening tests involve blood ,urine and stool samples and are best undertaken in a specialist setting. (2)Solar Urticaria: Rarely, exposure to light leads to urticarial weals. (3)Pellagra: In western societies, nicotinic acid deficiency is seen most commonly in alcoholics. It presents a triad of changes: Diarrhoea Dementia Dermatitis, which is light sensitive. (4)Polymorphic light eruption This is perhaps the most important, and certainly the commonest of the primary photosensitivity disorders. Patients often refer to their skin changes asprickly heat, but true prickly heat (or miliaria rubra)is quite different. Polymorphic light eruption presents a day or two after sun exposure, with changes on light exposed areas, for example the forearms, legs the V of the neck and the face. The lesions are itchy and morphologically variable (hence polymorphic). There may be papules, plaques, and blisters of areas resembling eczema. They increase in intensity over a week or so before subsiding. Treatment with topical steroids provides some relief, but some patients require systemic steroids to control an acute attack. Prevention is a better approach. Unfortunately, sunscreens are often not effective, but pre-season PUVA works well and can last for a whole summer. An alternative is the use of antimalarial medication (notably hydroxychloroquine) taken during sunny periods, or while abroad. A variety of polymorphic light eruption occurs almost exclusively in boys. Clusters of small blisters appear on the topes of the ears, especially in early spring. The condition settles spontaneously with age. Clinics in Photodermatosis Actinic Prurigo Actinic prurigo (AP) is a dermatosis that belongs to the group of idiopathic photodermatoses. Many names have been given to it, such as: solar dermatitis, GuaÃâÃ temalan cutaneous syndrome, solar prurigo, light-sensitive eruption in American Indians,familial actinic prurigo, polymorphous light eruption, (prurigo type) solar prurigo of high plateaus, and hereditary polyÃâÃ morphic light eruption of American Indians; howÃâÃ ever, it is the term actinic prurigo, coined by Lon-dono11 in 1968, which is preferred and used by most authors today. Actinic prurigo is a chronic photodermatosis that has frequently been confused with polymorphic light erupÃâÃ tion (PLE). However, there are now enough clinical, histologic, epidemiological, and immunogenetic data to suggest that they are two different diseases. AP begins in the first decade of life usually around ages 4 to 5, affects females more than males (ratio 2:1). The lesions are symmetrical in the sun-exposed areas of the face (eyebrows, dorsum of the nose, malar reÃâÃ gions, upper and lower lips), V-area of the neck, dor-sum of hands and forearms. The primary lesions are erythematous papules although excoriaÃâÃ tions, crusts, and lichenified plaques are commonly seen. Pruritus is a rule and usually very intense. One of the clinical features which distinguish this disease from PLE is the absence of vesicles as primary lesions in AP. Of course, whenever a secondary dermatosis such as eczema, impetigo, or contact dermatitis ensues, vesiÃâÃ cles may be seen. Two other differences between AP and PLE are lip and conjunctival affection in AP. CheiÃâÃ litis of actinic prurigo affects 84% of patients. AlÃâÃ though lesions are usually seen in both lips, the lower one being more exposed to sun rays is affected first an d more intensely; severe cases show edema, crusts, fisÃâÃ sures, shallow ulcerations, and hyperpigmentation, while in mild cases only dry lips with scaling may be found. Atopic dermatitis with photosensitivity where the key findings are a familial incidence, an early infancy onset, the presence of xerosis, the sparing of the tip of the nose, and a good response to topical cortico-steroids and emollients. Chronic actinic dermatitis which is quite infrequent, starts much later in life has a reduced UVB minimal erythema dose induction, and/or positive photo-patch testing. Persistent light reactors and actinic reticuloid show histologically dense lymphocytic inÃâÃ filtrates, which especially in the latter may resemble true lymphomas.  Phytophotodermatitis Phytophotodermatitis is a very common skin disease in some countries. It is an acute phototoxic reaction where a substance containing psoralens comes in conÃâÃ tact with the skin which is then exposed to UVA light. The clinical picture is that of sunburn ranging from mild erythema to severe blistering; it is usually accomÃâÃ panied by stinging or burning sensations. A residual hyperpigmented macule is the final stage of the disease and usually persists for weeks to months; some dark-skinned individuals (skin types IV to VI) may only present with this hyperpigmentation without any preÃâÃ vious signs or symptoms of sunburn. The most common phototoxic compounds are the furocoumarins which contained in a wide variety of plants, especially of the Umbelliferae, Rutaceae, and Moracea families. Commonly occurring photosensitizÃâÃ ing plants include citrus fruits such as limes and orÃâÃ anges, figs, and many vegetables such as celery, parsÃâÃ nip, parsley, carrots, and dill32; furocoumarins in lime pulp are 13 to 182 times less concentrated than those in the peel. Treatment is only symptomatic. Topical corticoste-roids help alleviate the burning sensations but do not seem to improve skin healing. Sunscreen use helps the resolution of the hyperpigmentation, and is the most important prophylactic measure for high-risk people. Melasma Melasma (chloasma) is characterized by light or dark brown hyperchromic macules with undefined borders, affecting mainly and symmetrically, the sunlight-exÃâÃ posed areas of the face. Melasma predominates in women, although it also affects men and has been reÃâÃ lated to sunlight exposure as well as hormonal, racial, and hereditary factors. Melanocytes are well known to be stimulated by estrogen and other sex-related hormones. Pregnancy and the ingestion of oral contraceptives can produce or exacerbate melasma, with an increase of melanogenesis and the presence of large melanocytes. Facial melano-cytes appear to be especially sensitive to hormonal inÃâÃ fluences but sunlight is always necessary for melasma to occur. Melasma has been reported to have a greater inciÃâÃ dence in tan or dark-skinned persons, especially in skin types III, IV, and V, but also depends, as stated before, on sunlight exposure (including UVA and visiÃâÃ ble light). Piquero-Martin has observed that pigment dispoÃâÃ sition (as seen with woods light), tends to occur more superficially in lighter skins and deeper in darker skins, the latter being more difficult to treat and eradicate. In some dark-skinned patients with clinically evident melasma, under woods light, the hyperpigmentation disappears. Apparently, this can be related to melanic pigment located deep in the dermis. Differential diagnoses include Rhiel melanosis, Ashy dermatosis, Addison disease, pigmented lichen planus, and postinflammatory hyperpigmentation. Many treatment modalities have been used, such as mercury compounds, vitamin C, tretinoin, topical steÃâÃ roids, glycolic acid, azelaic acid, and hydroquinone. Pytiriasis Alba Pytiriasis alba is a chronic asymptomatic dermatosis of unknown ethiology, characterized by hypochromic macules, 1 to 5 cm in diameter, covered by a very fine scale, with an ill-defined and occasionally hyperpig-mented border. The macules are mainly located on the sun-exposed areas of the face (malar areas, forehead, around the nasal and moth orifices) and extremities. The cause of this dermatosis is unknown, but many factors have been attributed to it. The main cause is sunlight exposure on a tan or dark skin, and it has been described as a reactive dermatosis to a distant staphy-loccocal or streptoccocal upper respiratory tract infection. The lesions have been attributed to postinflamma-tory hypopigmentation, with a decrease in melanosome number and size, low keratinocyte melanin uptake, and light refraction from a hyperkeratotic and parakeratotic stratum corneum. The histopathology shows an epiÃâÃ dermis with hyperkeratosis and parakeratosis, acantho-sis, and mild spongiosis. In the papillary dermis, vaso-dilation and mild perivascular inflammatory infiltrate and occasional pigment incontinence can be seen. Sunlight radiation (UVA, UVB, and visible light) in atopic patients with tan or dark skin are the most commonly affected. Treatment of pytiriasis alba must include sunlight protection, sun filters, low potency corticosteroids with a topical antibiotic (mupirocin, vioform). If an upper respiratory tract infection is detected, specific treatment should be given. Pellagra Also named Gaspar Casals disease, pellagra is a nutriÃâÃ tional disorder due to nicotinic acid deficiency, a B complex vitamin. Niacin is a nonessential vitamin and can be synthesized from the aminoacid tryptophan via the kynurenine pathway. It is mainly expressed on the skin, gastrointestinal and central nervous system. Pellagra is a bilateral and symÃâÃ metrical dermatosis affecting sun-exposed areas. The avitaminosis can be caused by drugs, such as isoniazid, 6-mercaptopurine, 5-fluouracil, and chloram-fenicol. Phenytoin and sodium valproate51 have also been related to nicotinamide deficiency. Clinical findings in pellagra include dermatitis, diarÃâÃ rhea, and dementia (the 3Ds). Pellagra is characterized by a intense red, scaly and hyperpigmented plaques on areas exposed to sun, heat, friction, or pressure. The lesions can be edematous with a burning sensation and occasional vesicules and des-quamation. In chronic lesions, the skin is thickened, hyperpig-mented with a dark brown hue. A typical finding is Casals necklace, a scaling collarette around the neck which extends down toward the sternum. Flexural fold may be macerated, and on seborrheic areas, follicular hyperkeratotic plugs are freÃâÃ quently present. Frequently, angular cheilitis, glossitis with papillary atrophy with a tender beefy red tongue, and esophagitis are seen. Manifestations in adÃâÃ vanced disease cases are vomiting, diarrhea, and weight loss with secondary anemia or amenorrea. CenÃâÃ tral nervous system symptoms include irritability, headaches, insomnia, amnesia, and anxiety. Later on, patients develop tremor, movement disorders, numbÃâÃ ness, encephalopathy, paralysis, and psycosis. PDT in dermatology Photodynamic therapy (PDT) harnesses the power of light and oxygen to enact biologic change. In its infancy, the use of PDT in the treatment of dermatologic disease was limited due to the prolonged and pronounced photosensitivity resulting from systemic photosensitizing agents. HowÃâÃ ever, in the early 1990s Kennedy and Pottier described the use of topical 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) to create endogÃâÃ enous protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) from which came a limited, localized, photodynamic response. With this development, many of the early limitations of PDT were alleviated, and the treatment became much more convenient. Early application focused primarily on the treatment of dysplastic and neoplastic disease; however, during the past few years, the versatility of PDT has been more fully realized, and it is now also being used to treat a wide variety of inflammatory and infectious processes. The effectiveness of PDT depends on the photosensitizer used, its ability to selectively penetrate diseased tissue, and the duration of application; the activating light source, its ability to penetrate to the desired target, and its duration of exposure; and the type of target cells and their oxygenation status. To be effective, the damage resulting from PDT must surpass cellular repair mechanisms, a feature referred to as the minimum photodynamic dose.  Summary According to the lecture the Professor Moseley gave us and the materials I get from relative books and papers. We can know that the photodermatology is a huge branch of skin disease. First I give the introduction and a review of background and history, it can clear explain what is photodermatology especially photodermatosis in clinic use. Next I focus on Photosensitivity, PDT in dermatology and Clinics in Photodermatosis, which explain different parts of the whole photodermatology. In Clinics of photodermatosis, there are many kinds of photodermatosis listed and illustrated, including the principles, treatment and prevention. As new to dermatology, PDT is an effective therapy to cure dermatosis by penetrating diseased tissue.
Wednesday, November 13, 2019
One of the most common mental disorders in the world today affecting up to 340 million people worldwide is depression. Imagine the entire student body of Upper Darby High School infected with the exact same disease. Depression is a common but complex disorder diversely affecting a variety of people with a multitude of symptoms. The disorder may be brought into affect due to a large number of causes. What can be done? There are numerous manners in which to treat this disorder spanning from medication to counseling to support groups. Although depression is one of the most treatable mental illnesses in the world, only about one half of all cases of depression are diagnosed and successfully treated. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The most common symptoms of depression include low self-esteem, loss of energy, or lack of interest in activities previously experienced as pleasurable. Sleeping problems have also been associated with depression. A study shows roughly 80% of diseased individuals experience insomnia (depression.com 1). Possible problems may include: difficulty in falling asleep, waking up in the middle of the night with difficulty returning to sleep, waking up too early in the morning, brief periods of REM sleep, unusually long periods of stage 1 (light) sleep, or unusually brief periods of stage 3 and 4 ( deep, restorative) sleep (depression.com 1). Weight and depression are also commonly associated with each other. Many people begin loosing interest in eating which results in weight loss. Others may experience the opposite effect and gain weight by overeating. Various antidepressant medications are known to have different affects on appetite and weight (depression.com 3). Suicid al thoughts are also a more common symptom of depression. Most people do not commit suicide because of increased suicidal thoughts. The risk of doing so simply increases their suicidal tendency. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The causes of depression remain unclear and vary from person to person. Genetic factors of depression have become a growing interest among scientist. The most probable explanation of this disorder is a chemical imbalance in the human brain. Evidence suggests that depression is caused by a deficiency in noradrenaline and serotonin neurotransmitters (depression-net.com 2). Studies have shown that people with relatives who have depression gain a one in four ... ... electroconvulsive therapy. This is reserved for only the most sever cases of depression in which a patient has not responded to medication or for some reason is unable to take antidepressants. ECT is one of the most effective treatments for depression. Over the years, it has advanced to become a safer procedure (depression-net.com 5). The World Health Organization predicts that depression will be the greatest burden of ill health to the developing world by the year 2020. It is predicted to be the second largest cause of death and disability (depression-net 1). Will the new millennium spawn a new breed of ill mannered, drug intoxicated, depressed individuals? Depression is the most common mental disorder in the world today, and yet there are still many aspects of this illness that we do not know about. The exact cause of depression remains undetermined without a cure. There is no precise test that can be given to determine weather or not an individual has depression. There is a certain lack of understanding and knowledge among society. It is abnormal for a person to commit self inflicted harm intended upon ending his or her own lives. There is help for those depressed individuals.
Sunday, November 10, 2019
An ethical leader is a leader who has good virtue characteristics as a human being that displays good quality leadership that is thoughtful of others that shows caring and kindness and believes in fairness to others. A good ethical leader encourages others to do the right thing and lead others in the right directions of making the right decisions. This paper contains virtues and vice on Bill Gates charity organization and business affairs. The evidence is shown that Bill Gates is a man of many virtues proven by a charity organization called Bill and Melinda Foundation. However, Gates has proven to be a strong ethical leader there are some who believe otherwise when it comes to unethical practice as a businessman of some of the top largest company. The goal of this paper is to focus on effective leadership of Bill Gates should be handled in an ethical manner on managing business and employees with consideration and respect. Virtues of Bill GatesThere are two virtues about Bill Gates that best describes as an effective ethical leader of Bill and Melinda Foundation. The first virtue is sincerity is one of the characteristic traits of Gates. According to Oxford Dictionary, the definition of sincerity is the quality of being free from pretense, deceit, or hypocrisy (oxforddictionary.com). Sincerity meant as being generous and kind and caring to others such as individuals who in need of help in all lives. The Bill and Melinda foundation is a charity foundation that helps and improves poverty, education, children well-being, and health. Gates donated billions of dollars towards foundation charity that contributes to people around the world. The foundation has helped proven the sincerity virtue of Gates moral characteristic traits in the most critical issues that needed the most. There are many evidences that Gates invested into healthcare of 4.2billion dollars and 1.5billion for the homeless Lancet, (2007). Gates has well proven to help save and change world by creating Bill and Melinda foundation which is the world's largest charity foundation.The second virtue is wisdom that Gates has proven to be good moral character by building a successful foundation of charity by organizing, gathering information, and demonstrating knowledge of what are critical issues that needed to be addressed to make the world a better place. The Oxford dictionary gives the definition of wisdom as the quality of having experience, knowledge, and good judgment; the quality of being wise (oxforddictionary.com). Wisdom is meant as having the knowledge and good decision making for an effective benefit. There are two types of wisdom such as theoretical and practical. The theoretical wisdom is explained as to understanding and comprehending. According to Brusseau (2012), describes practical or sometimes called prudence as the learned knowledge that being able to apply it in real life. Bill Gates of Vice as InsensibilitySome believe that Gates has another side that made Gates one of the richest entrepreneurs in the world. Bill Gates has a number of successful businesses. One of the companies, in particular, is a waste management company called Republic Service. Republic Service that Gates own is one of the world's second-largest companies in America. Accusations have been made against Gates has mistreated the employees of Republic Service with unethical practice and standards. The three major concerns that workers are disputing over retirement funds being taken, unpaid overtime, and illegal abandoning contracts employee already agreed that was with the union. This caused employees to protest and being lockout Republic Service.The term insensibility is one of example that applies to Gates on this matter. Assuming that Gates is guilty of this unethical behavior, this is an act of no consideration for the employees if employees' benefits were taken that employee had worked for many years at the waste management company. The dictionary gives the definition of insensibility as incapable of feeling or perceiving; deprived of sensation; unconscious, as a person after a violent blow (dictionary.com). Assuming that allegations are true this unkindly act of unethical practice, then evidence has shown that Gates should show more of effective ethical practice and standards towards employees with consideration and respect. Conclusion Bill Gates is believed to be a good example of an ethical leader. Bill Gates is a self-made billionaire who was the creator of Microsoft and other software. Gates had changed the lives of people all over the world with the innovation of Microsoft. Bill Gates has a very successful resume and continues to pursuing on helping save the world which is an inspiration to everyone. Bill Gates has a way of touching people hearts because of the concerns of many critical issues that the world is faced with. Gates has a way of tackling major issues that no one wants to deal with let alone donate an unlimited amount of funding so give thanks to Gates.Despite what others are saying, many have an issue with Gates the billionaire money which shouldn't matter. After all, there are always some allegations or accusations that are being made about someone especially like Bill Gates that is rich and famous can't expect to have enemies. Overall, what should matter if Gates behaving unethical manner. The value of employees should be held to the highest standards of ethical behavior with the utmost respect? Let's concentrate on what all said to be practiced and what all is said to be preached. That is, being an ethical leader who shows, believes, and live by values, beliefs, and morals in life at all times.
Friday, November 8, 2019
STARTING OFF . . . AS A FICTION WRITER After last weeks editorial about becoming known as a writer first Interesting article, but with so few magazines publishing fiction, what are we to do, write for the Ã¢â¬Å"little magazinesÃ¢â¬ for no pay? My bad. I was not clear. What I meant to say is that you need to become known as a writer first . . . in any way possible. . . even in magazines. Even if you write fiction, you can write nonfiction for magazines, which gets you used to deadlines, writing tight, and adhering to editorial guidelines. Once people realize you write, they follow you to your fiction. The average person doesnt recognize that you are a fiction writer or nonfiction writer. They just know you write. Call me a blasphemer for making you write outside your genre. Im being practical, pragmatic, and common sensical. Im a left brain person. Nonfiction pays. Fiction doesnt until you bust all the odds over a long period of time. So . . . if you want to write FOR A LIVING . . . you write nonfiction for a while to become established. Also, fiction has an advantage that nonfiction doesnt have. Contests. There are ten or twenty times the number of contests for fiction than nonfiction. Especially if you write short stories, from flash to 15,000 words. So, while youre writing all that nonfiction that might go against the grain, you can keep preening and honing your fiction for contests. Win one or two contests, and opportunities open up more. What other options do you have as a fiction writer? Write for literary magazines, for little to nothing. Write for genre magazines, for little to nothing. Yes, the clips count. Yes, agents and publishers will admire you for getting published. Just be realistic and accept the fact it is hard to earn a living writing short fiction for magazines and lit journals. But seriously, what nonfiction can you write about as a fiction author? Ideas you can use -how to write or be a writer pieces (The Writer, Writers Digest) -become a specialist about your genre (Amanda Hocking blogged about fantasy) -become a specialist about your setting (rural, inner city, beach, government, a state, a country) -become a specialist about your time period -write for trades in your profession represented in your stories(cake decorator, doctor, police, computer techie, dog trainer) -write for mags that use your voice(humor, noir, cozy, sexy) -beliefs or causes (Mary Alice Monroe and environmental conservation) -subject matter research or methods(PI Magazine on forensics or police procedure if youre a mystery author) -geography(Pat Conroy and Dorothea Benton Frank on South Carolina) Hopefully your mind is spinning with ideas now!
Wednesday, November 6, 2019
Want to Make Your Paper Catchy Dont Forget About a Hook! The Best Ideas for Creating an Outstanding Essay Hook What is the first thing you do, when start working on an essay? Do you write an introduction or prefer working on body paragraphs? Do you have secret techniques or hook sentence ideas, which are aimed to catch attention of the reader? You probably know that it is possible to insert a quote or a fact to make the reader want to learn more, but there are tens of other hook ideas, which can make your essay unique and original, grabbing attention from the very beginning. We have created this article for those, who want to master quality writing and want to learn other approaches. Essay hook: a simple definition Before learning all of the hook peculiarities, it is important to understand what it really is. Basically, a hook is a sentence in your introduction, which moves the reader to learn more about what you are willing to say. It is only a short element of the text but it is still informative and catchy. Hook renders an important idea and helps to show the reader the main ideas of the author. Tips on creating a perfect hook Our experts have gathered tens of essay examples to detect the best hook ideas and show you how a great introduction should look like. Below we will provide you with the best ideas, which you can use depending on the type of your essay and your main goal. One of the biggest mistakes most of the students make is writing a powerful start, which has nothing to do with the rest of the text. You can work on the introduction with all of your energy and motivation but there is also a need to interlink your hook with the rest of the paragraphs. If you are not able to support your thesis in the body paragraphs, your reader will easily lose track of your thoughts. Remember, style and tone of your essay has a crucial meaning. If your research paper is in physics or any other scientific matter, you shouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t begin your introduction with a personal story or an anecdote. Your hook should be relevant and appropriate, which means that you should always think of the target audience. For example, if you are writing for professionals to discuss a chemistry topic, you shouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t use slang or simple teenage vocabulary. Of course, readers will understand what you are willing to say but they will surely have a bad aftertaste. All of the above strategies to creating a meaningful hook are essential if you want to help the reader understand what you are willing to write about and enjoy the text. Transformation facts into a hook To deliver a great hook you should have a clear understanding of its source: this can be anything, which inspires or excites you. You can insert an interesting fact, which your audience is not aware of. Here are the main sources you can use: Newspapers; Textbooks; Magazines; Websites; Scientific and academic journal; Interviews; Films and documents; Official reports. Remember that all of the sources you use should be recent and reliable, which will make your hook more solid and reliable. To give you a better understanding of how hook sentences influence essays, we will discuss nicely written examples. In case you need assistance in writing an introduction or a hook sentence, we are always there to cover your back. Just place an order and forget about all the hardships. Use an interesting fact A great example of a quality hook is a fact, which is taken from a trustworthy source that publishes only recent information on the most discussed matters. People always find facts interesting and intriguing. For example, Ã¢â¬ËOver 40% of iPhone and iPad owners use their devices only to read emails and texts.Ã¢â¬â¢ Such information is useful for those, who are planning to launch a new project or mobile application and need information on the market. Not every teacher supports the idea of using the internet and digital sources. That is why you need to explain why using such a hook is fine for your particular topic. Then you can go on to discuss why apps are a great instrument in launching new products and ideas. Ã¢â¬ËThere are two clear branches in literature, when it comes to adjective and noun constructions analysis.Ã¢â¬â¢ In the example above you can see a scientific and official essay, which shouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t start with an anecdote or a humorous story. This introduction is very traditional and has a conflict inside: Ã¢â¬Ëtwo branchesÃ¢â¬â¢ means that the author will support one of the sides or will offer a third option to solve the problem. Starting your essay with conflict is always a great idea. Start with a joke or an anecdote Online you can find thousands of different jokes and anecdotes on tens of topics to help scholars cover the matter with humor and style. Below you will find good example of such a hook sentence: Ã¢â¬ËA mice family was overtaken by a cat; father of the family jumped and said Ã¢â¬ËBow wowÃ¢â¬â¢ and the cat disappeared. The mouse son asked the father what that was and he replied, Ã¢â¬ËNow you see why it is so important to study a foreign language.Ã¢â¬â¢ It is a great idea to begin your essay with if you are asked to write about the importance of studying a second language. However, every country has humor peculiarities and forbidden topics, so you must always choose a humorous hook wisely. Use of an opening question If you want to make one step further, it is possible to combine statistics and facts into a question. A rhetorical question is a great way to open an introduction and depict what you are going to discuss. However, donÃ¢â¬â¢t forget that you will need to give an answer somewhere in the text. Ã¢â¬ËDid you know how many homeless people in the United States hold college and university degrees? Best ways to write a great hook for your research paper Research paper is a serious work, which requires lots of time and consideration. However, when it comes to a hook sentence, research papers are similar to essays, so once you master basic principles, you wonÃ¢â¬â¢t find it difficult to create a hook for any assignment. Considering the fact that a research paper has a scientific nature, you should avoid anecdotes, metaphors and other inappropriate pieces as a hook sentence. It is better to use facts, statistics or a rhetorical question, which will interest the reader and make him want to learn more. The best elements to include to a hook of your research paper: An interesting and rare fact; A piece of catchy statistics; A rhetorical question, which provokes deeper thinking on the matter; Basic information on the conducted research; A quick reminder of what the paper is going to discuss. Hook sentence in a persuasive essay A persuasive essay aims to persuade the reader to accept the writerÃ¢â¬â¢s point of view. That is why it is so important to create an outstanding hook at the beginning of your essay. You can add any type of information, which will reflect the style of your work. If you work on the hook sentence thoroughly, you will make the reader continue and learn more of what you have to say. Here are the best ideas for your hook sentence: Fact; Joke or anecdote; Statistics; Metaphor; Simile; Rhetorical question. All of the mentioned elements can become a great idea for a rhetorical essay hook, as it has no limitations on style. Compare and contrast essay hooks Luckily, you are free to use almost any type of hooks, when working on your compare and contrast essay. You can analyze the discussed matters and engage them into one single sentence to catch the interest of the audience. You can also intrigue them with a quotation, question or example from your own experience. It may sound a bit complicated at first but once you write two or three hook sentences, it will become much easier! A mixed hook In some situations you may want to add several types to a single question and it can be a great idea! For example, your hook may contain an interesting fact and a date; it can also consist of a rhetorical question (although without a question mark) and a conflict, promising to describe both opinions throughout the text. Using quotes from literature as a way to express your point of view One of the best and the most universal types of a hook is a literary one. It is a social or a philosophical phrase, which grabs readerÃ¢â¬â¢s attention and shows how well you have mastered the topic. Think of a phrase, sentence or a whole paragraph, which will reflect the general idea of your topic. If the topic of your essay is not too formal, try to be creative and find an original quote. It can be a modern writer, a movie quote or any other phrase, which will interest the reader and catch his interest. An example from a real life Think of a short story from life of a famous person to grab the attention of the reader. Such hook type shows the relevance of your topic through the prism of a real life situation. You can use biography of famous people to prove your point of view. For example, Bon Jovi visits disabled people in hospitals to brighten their days. Helen Keller writes amazing stories being blind from birth. It is better to provide stories not from your own life but of people, who you consider your role models. If you choose such a story wisely, you will surely grab the readerÃ¢â¬â¢s attention. Ã¢â¬ËI have been smiling from ear to ear for almost thirty years. Now I am trying to quit.Ã¢â¬â¢ This one can be an example of an outstanding personal drama. Readers will surely want to know more about the life situation and personal lessons the author has made. Do you want to know why the author of the quote doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t want to smile anymore? Such hooks always grab attention from the first word to the last one! If you are writing an essay on personal traits, like greed or jealousy, you can always quote Shakespeare. His works are a great source of catchy and thoughtful phrases, which will never leave readers indifferent. Famous people quotes Some of the examples above can be easily placed into this category, because such phrases are known all over the world. When something solid happens, you can easily find comments of celebrities and use them for your own purposes. Using quotes of famous people is a great way to engage the audience. With their help you are able to make a statement and show that you have conducted a thorough research. You show that you are interested in history, public life and have background information on the topic. Use metaphors to catch attention of the reader If you want to take your writing skills to a completely new level, it will be wise to learn how to use similes and metaphors. However, not all people get their meaning, so it is better to choose a simple one or provide an explanation of its meaning. If you donÃ¢â¬â¢t do it, you may lose your audience or bore it. A thoroughly picked metaphor will make your speech powerful and strong. Here are a few examples of good metaphors for your hook: As busy as a bee; As cute as a puppy; As snug as a bug in a rug. Additional ways to create a great hook sentence Apart from all of the above-mentioned ways, you can also state a thesis statement or add numbers and statistics. It is up to you to decide, which method will be the most effective one. However, donÃ¢â¬â¢t forget to research a bit and decide what type of hook is the best one. In this article we have tried to explain all of the ways of creating a strong hook. However, it is still quite difficult to grab readerÃ¢â¬â¢s attention with proper preparation. That is why there is a great solution for all of the students, who value their time and experience difficulties with completing all of the assignments. You can turn to our professional writers, who will help you to create an outstanding hook and essay, meeting all of the requirements and guidelines. Just order a research paper or an essay right now and get the best hook you have ever seen!
Monday, November 4, 2019
Policy (Financial Aid and Affordability of Higher Education) - Research Paper Example Million students around the world who have desire to learn and gain higher education leave their dreams because of the factor of affordability. As at times they have to face a situation where they have no option but to quit studies because their financial standings does not allow them to pursue their degrees, however in order to ameliorate and come out from this catastrophic situations some students rely on loan and grants that are available for them in the shape of public, private and other sectors. Meanwhile the main reasons behind this affordability issue is because of continuous inflation in tuition fees, and also the poor economic conditions of the country which one way or other is directly or indirectly responsible for increasing the cost of running for institutions. As a consequence families, students, taxpayers, lawmakers (and institutions itself) all are affected. Since many American understands the value of degree (higher education) and the possible fruits and outcomes that are likely to come if one is successful in attaining or achieving the degree, or in other words they have clear understandings that higher education is prerequisite for employment these days and is necessary in so many different regards (AASCU, 2011). However in pursuing the degree often students at times have to face a situation where they have to leave or quit a degree because of affordability, some go for financial aid in order to come out from this situation as they believe this is a solution, while others are lost in translation and this financial aid systems and procedures turns out to be a nightmare for them. Moreover Heller & Marin (2002) highlighted very important phenomenon in this regard, they believe that since financial aid is awarded considering merit, competence and ability rather than considering need therefore, majority of students who are not very much blessed with extra ordinary talent or they have some lacking in terms of potential are persistently avoided. As a result their dreams and desires of going into a college is completely wiped off because they cannot afford tuition fees and are not able to acquire financial aid because of merit (Heller & Marin, 2002). Meanwhile this paper is an attempt to explore and highlight the issues and concerns related to affordability factor in order to achieve higher education, furthermore possible remedies and solutions will also be engrave in this paper pertaining the context of ambiance of higher education. Moreover American Association of States Colleges and Universities (AASCU) public policy agenda will also be explored in this paper as this has mainly to deal with ensuring the goals of higher education are met in perpetuity. Similarly role of Federal government and AASCU in terms of ensuring higher education considering the affordability factor will also be scrutinized and the role of Ohio State (Ohio Board of Regents) in making ways and successfully achieving goals and initiating new plans in this regard will also be the part of this paper. HISTORY: Initially higher education institutions in the United States were only focusing on providing services to elites and to those who were willing to join the Christian religious groups (clergy) (Thelin, 2004). However this perception of people has undergone a change because of the continuous evolution in purpose of higher educat
Friday, November 1, 2019
Northeren Ireland History Coursework - Essay Example The aim of this paper is to discuss thoroughly the elements involved in the struggle for peace that the people of Northern Ireland find themselves involved in - both past and present. By examining the history of Northern Ireland, including the factors, obstacles, and pinnacle points involved, we can come to a clearer and more knowledgeable understanding on the subject matter. This is what will be dissertated in the following. I can learn many disadvantages faced by Catholics from the first paragraph through the learning that Catholics were a significant minority in regards to employment; only a mere 400 out of 10,000 workers in a Belfast shipyard were Catholic. This proves to be a significant disadvantage towards Catholics in the early 1960s considering that it seems as though they were given less employment opportunities. As well as facing disadvantages in city areas like Belfast, the second part of the source also shows other disadvantages faced in rural areas through another staggering statistic; although the population at the time in Fermanagh was over half Catholic, in regards to employment their position was still strikingly minor. Out of the Fermanagh City Council's 370 employees only 48 were Catholic, and out of 75 school bus drivers, only 7 were Catholic. In conclusion from this I can learn that although sometimes the Catholics were actually a majority in population, such as in the rural city of Fermanagh, they continued to make up only the minority in regards to employment. This shows us that they were treated unfairly, and were not given equal employment opportunities. How Useful are Sources B and C in Helping to Assess the Extent of Discrimination Against Catholics These two sources are significantly helpful in assessing the discrimination against Catholics, in that they show severe examples of the scrutiny and injustice that they faced. For example in source B, when Billy Sinclair, a former player-manager of Linfield, a football club in Northern Ireland, is making statements in 1984; he explained that if a Linfield soccer scout asked a player what school he went to and "if it's Saint something, then all of a sudden the boy's not good enough." This is a perfect example of the unfair discrimination the Catholics faced during that time period. In regards to source C, a similarly severe example is used, as it was described that Protestants are preferred during times of depression in preference to their fellow Catholics. This proves that people were not looked upon for their talent or humanity, but rather for whether they were Catholic or not, which is completely stereotypical and unjustified. How do Sources D, E, and F Help to Explain why Londonderry Became a Centre of the Civil Rights Movement in Northern Ireland Londonderry, which is also commonly referred to as the